Python总结之处理时间(time)、日期时间(datetime)、日历(calendar)

LeoZhanggg 2020-11-10 17:46:26
总结 Python 处理 时间 之处



1、 模块导入

# 日期时间对象,常用方法有date(), time()
>>> from datetime import datetime
# 日期对象,常用属性有year, month, day
>>> from datetime import date
# 时间对象,常用属性有hour, minute, second, microsecond, tzinfo(时区)
>>> from datetime import time
# 时间间隔,常用属性有weeks, days, hours, ...
>>> from datetime import timedelta
# 日期间隔,常用属性有years, months, weeks, days, hours ...
>>> from dateutil import relativedelta
注意:此模块需要导入(pip install python-dateutil)

2、初始化对象

>>> datetime_obj = datetime.today()
>>> date_obj = date.today()
>>> str_obj = '2020-11-10 15:42:53'
>>> timestamp_obj = '1604994173'

3、格式转换

# datetime 转 string (直接使用str强制转换即可)
>>> str(datetime_obj)
'2020-11-10 15:42:53.821000'
>>> str(date_obj)
'2020-11-10'
# datetime 格式化成 string
>>> datetime_obj.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
'2020-11-10 15:42:53'
>>> datet_obj.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
'2020-11-10'
# datetime 转 date
>>> datetime_obj.date()
datetime.date(2012,11,19)
# datetime 转 timestamp
>>> datetime_obj.timestamp()
1604994173.821
# 注意:Python时间戳是以秒为单位,java时间戳则以毫秒为单位
# string 转 datetime
>>> datetime.strptime(str_obj,'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
datetime.datetime(2020, 11, 10, 15, 42, 53)
# timestamp 转 datetime
>>> datetime.fromtimestamp(timestamp_obj)
datetime.datetime(2020, 11, 10, 15, 42, 53)
# date 转 datetime
>>> datetime.strptime(str(date_obj), '%Y-%m-%d')
datetime.datetime(2020, 11, 10, 0, 0)

4、类型判断

>>> isinstance(datetime_obj, date)
True
>>> isinstance(datetime_obj, datetime)
True
>>> isinstance(date_obj, date)
True
>>> isinstance(date_obj, datetime)
False

5、日期时间计算

# 年限加1
>>> date_obj + relativedelta.relativedelta(years=1)
datetime.date(2021, 11, 10)
# 月限减1
>>> date_obj - relativedelta.relativedelta(months=1)
datetime.date(2020, 10, 10)
>>> datetime_obj + relativedelta.relativedelta(months=-1)
datetime.datetime(2020, 10, 10, 15, 42, 53, 821000)
# 星期加减1
>>> date_obj + relativedelta.relativedelta(weeks=-1)
datetime.date(2020, 11, 3)
>>> date_obj + datetime.timedelta(weeks=1)
datetime.date(2020, 11, 17)
# 天数减1
>>> date_obj - relativedelta.relativedelta(days=1)
datetime.date(2020, 11, 9)

# 小时加1
>>> datetime_obj + datetime.timedelta(hours=1) datetime.datetime(2020, 11, 10, 16, 42, 53, 821000)

# 分钟(minutes)、秒(seconds)、毫秒(microseconds)以此类推即可

6、日历模块

>>> import calendar
>>> calendar.month(2018, 12)
December 2018
Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31
# 设置每周以周三开始算
>>> calendar.setfirstweekday(2)
# 判断是否是闰年 >>> print(calendar.isleap(2018)) False
# 返回某月的第一天是星期几和这个月的天数 >>> print(calendar.monthrange(2018, 12)) (5, 31)

 

Python中时间日期格式化符号:
------------------------------------
%y 两位数的年份表示(00-99%Y 四位数的年份表示(000-9999%m 月份(01-12%d 月内中的一天(0-31%H 24小时制小时数(0-23%I 12小时制小时数(01-12%M 分钟数(00=59%S 秒(00-59%a 本地简化星期名称
%A 本地完整星期名称
%b 本地简化的月份名称
%B 本地完整的月份名称
%c 本地相应的日期表示和时间表示
%j 年内的一天(001-366%p 本地A.M.或P.M.的等价符
%U 一年中的星期数(00-53)星期天为星期的开始
%w 星期(0-6),星期天为星期的开始
%W 一年中的星期数(00-53)星期一为星期的开始
%x 本地相应的日期表示
%X 本地相应的时间表示
%Z 当前时区的名称 

 

作者:Leozhanggg

出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/leozhanggg/p/13954504.html

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版权声明
本文为[LeoZhanggg]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://www.cnblogs.com/leozhanggg/p/13954504.html

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