Python:Flask请求参数和响应探究

彭世瑜 2020-11-13 00:08:37
Python Flask 参数 响应 请求


一、参数传递

测试代码

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from flask import Flask, request
app = Flask(__name__)
@app.route("/", methods=['POST', 'GET'])
def index():
print(request.args)
print(request.form)
print(request.values)
print(request.data)
print(request.json)
return "ok"
if __name__ == '__main__':
app.run(debug=True)

请求测试

1、发送json数据

POST http://127.0.0.1:5000/?age=12
Content-Type: application/json
{

"name": "Tom"
}

收到的数据如下

request.args [('age', '12')]
request.form []
request.values [('age', '12')]
request.data b'{\n"name": "Tom"\n}'
request.json {
'name': 'Tom'}

2、发送form数据

POST http://127.0.0.1:5000/?age=12
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
name=Tom

收到的数据如下

request.args [('age', '12')]
request.form [('name', 'Tom')]
request.values [('age', '12'), ('name', 'Tom')]
request.data b''
request.json None

如果request.argsrequest.form 数据相同,会优先取request.args 中的数据

二、升级参数接收

通过测试发现,如果前端没有传递正确的json数据,request.json 会返回一个None ,如果直接取数据会报错,目前主流的传参方式是json数据,我们改装一下:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from flask import Flask, request, Request
class MyRequest(Request):
@property
def json(self):
"""避免json数据未传递而返回 None"""
try:
data = self.get_json()
except Exception as e:
data = None
return data or {
}
@property
def params(self):
"""
将参数全都放入一个变量
参数获取顺序 args > form > json
:return: {dict}
"""
data = {
}
for key, value in self.args.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
for key, value in self.form.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
for key, value in self.json.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
return data
app = Flask(__name__)
app.request_class = MyRequest
@app.route("/", methods=['POST', 'GET'])
def index():
print(request.args)
print(request.form)
print(request.values)
print(request.data)
print(request.json)
print(request.params)
return request.params
if __name__ == '__main__':
app.run(debug=True)

MyRequest 类 修改了 json 方法,捕获了异常,避免返回 None 报错,添加了params 方法,将所有参数都封装到里边,简化参数获取,不过不能准确获取参数

三、返回参数

视图函数不能直接返回 list 参数,所以改造一下

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from flask import Flask, request, Request, jsonify
class MyRequest(Request):
@property
def json(self):
"""避免json数据未传递而返回 None"""
try:
data = self.get_json()
except Exception as e:
data = None
return data or {
}
@property
def params(self):
"""
将参数全都放入一个变量
处理参数顺序 args > form > json
:return: {dict}
"""
data = {
}
for key, value in self.args.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
for key, value in self.form.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
for key, value in self.json.items():
data.setdefault(key, value)
return data
class MyFlask(Flask):
request_class = MyRequest
def make_response(self, rv):
"""视图函数可以直接返回list 或者 dict"""
if isinstance(rv, (list, dict)):
return jsonify(rv)
return super().make_response(rv)
def post(self, rule, **options):
"""便于书写post方法"""
options.setdefault('methods', ['POST'])
return self.route(rule, **options)
app = MyFlask(__name__)
@app.post("/")
def index():
return ['cat', 'pig']
if __name__ == '__main__':
app.run(debug=True)

额外添加了post方法,便于书写post请求

相关文章

  1. Flask最佳实践-1
  2. Flask最佳实践-2
版权声明
本文为[彭世瑜]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://pengshiyu.blog.csdn.net/article/details/109379243

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