A rare Python library for data science and machine learning

osc_ a45vpoh4 2020-11-13 14:52:48
rare python library data science


This paper introduces the excellent data science and machine learning in the market Python library .

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The picture is from Pexels


According to the extensive needs of the current technical community , This article will focus on , Excellent in the market for data science and machine learning implementations Python Software :

  • Introduction to data science and machine learning

  • Why use Python Doing data science and machine learning ?

  • For data science and machine learning Python library

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Introduction to data science and machine learning


as everyone knows , We are in an era of big data , Data drives the development of machine models “ fuel ”.


actually , Data science and machine learning are both skills , It's not just two isolated technologies .


They require developers to have skills : Get practical insights from the data , By building prediction models , And then the ability to solve problems .


As far as the literal definition is concerned :

  • Data Science , It's extracting useful information from data , The process of solving practical problems .

  • machine learning , How is it through the vast amount of data provided , To solve the problem .


Then the relationship between the two can be described as : Machine learning is part of Data Science , It uses machine learning algorithms and other statistical techniques , To learn how data affects and develops the business .


Why use Python Doing data science and machine learning ?


Python Ranked first among the popular programming languages for machine learning and Data Science . Why is that ? 

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① Easy to learn :Python It uses very simple syntax , Can be used to implement simple calculations .


for example : Add two strings to the complex calculation process , To build a complex machine learning model .


② Less code : Although there are many algorithms involved in data science and machine learning , But thanks to Python Support for predefined packages , We don't have to write algorithms from scratch .


meanwhile , To simplify ,Python It also provides a kind of “ Check when coding (check as you code)” Methods , Thus, the workload of testing code is effectively reduced .


③ Pre built database :Python with 100 Various pre built libraries , It can be used to implement various machine learning and deep learning algorithms .


therefore , Every time a user runs an algorithm on a dataset , Just install and load the necessary packages with a single command .


among , Popular pre built libraries include :NumPy、Keras、Tensorflow、 as well as Pytorch etc. .


④ It's not about the platform :Python It can be run in include :Windows、macOS、Linux、 as well as Unix On a variety of platforms .


When moving code from one platform to another , You can use things like PyInstaller Software packages like that , To solve all the dependency problems .


⑤ A lot of community support : Besides having a lot of supporters ,Python There are also many communities and forums , All kinds of programmers can post their own errors in it , And help each other .

For data science and machine learning  Python library


Python In artificial intelligence (AI) And the field of machine learning is widely used , One of the important reasons is :Python Thousands of built-in libraries are available .


Through various built-in functions and methods , These libraries make it easy to analyze data 、 Handle 、 Arrangement 、 And modeling tasks .


Next, we will focus on the following types of task Libraries :

  • Statistical analysis

  • Data visualization

  • Data modeling and machine learning

  • Deep learning

  • natural language processing (NLP)



Statistical analysis


Statistics is a foundation of data science and machine learning . All machine learning and deep learning (DL) Algorithm 、 And related technologies are based on the basic principles and concepts of Statistics . and Python It provides a large number of software libraries for statistical analysis .


Here it is , We will focus on the recommended packages and built-in functions that can perform complex statistical calculations .


They are :

  • NumPy

  • SciPy

  • Pandas

  • StatsModels


①NumPy

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NumPy、 Or called Numerical Python Is the most commonly used Python One of the Libraries . The main function of the library is : Supports multidimensional arrays for mathematical and logical operations .


Users can NumPy Used to index 、 classification 、 plastic 、 Transmit images 、 And a multi-dimensional array of acoustic wave types .


Here is NumPy List of specific functions of :

  • Perform mathematical and scientific calculations from simple to complex .

  • Powerful support for multidimensional array objects , A collection of functions and methods for handling array elements .

  • Provides Fourier transform and data processing routines .

  • Perform linear algebraic calculations , This is for including : Linear regression 、 Logical regression 、 Naive Bayes and other machine learning algorithms , It's very necessary .


②SciPyimage.png

Based on the NumPy Above SciPy library , It's a collection of sub packages . It can help solve various basic problems related to statistical analysis .


Because it is suitable for processing, it uses NumPy Library defined array elements , therefore SciPy Libraries can usually be used to calculate those that use NumPy, Mathematical equations that are still impossible to complete .


Here is SciPy List of specific functions of :

  • Through and with NumPy Arrays are used together , It provides a platform for numerical integration and optimization methods .

  • It comes with vector quantization 、 Fourier transformation 、 integral 、 A collection of sub packages such as interpolation .

  • Provides a complete stack of linear algebraic functions . These functions can be used such as k-means Algorithm , To do clustering and other advanced computing .

  • Provides for signal processing 、 data structure 、 Numerical algorithms 、 And the support of creating sparse matrix .


③Pandasimage.png

As another important statistical Library ,Pandas It is mainly used for statistics 、 Finance 、 economics 、 Data analysis and so on .


The software library mainly relies on NumPy Array , To deal with it Pandas Data objects for . After all ,NumPy、Pandas and SciPy Performing scientific calculations 、 And data processing , There's a deep interdependence .


Here is Pandas List of specific functions of :

  • Use predefined and custom indexes , To quickly create effective DataFrame object .

  • Can be used to process large data sets , And execute the subset 、 Data slicing 、 And index operations .

  • Provides for creating Excel Chart , And the built-in capabilities to perform complex data analysis tasks , for example : Descriptive statistical analysis , Data collation 、 transformation 、 operation 、 And visualization .

  • Provides support for processing temporal data .


I personally think :Pandas It's an excellent software library for processing large amounts of data ;NumPy Excellent support for multidimensional arrays ; and Scipy It provides a set of sub packages for performing most of the statistical analysis tasks .


④StatsModels


Based on the NumPy and SciPy Above StatsModels Python software package , It's creating statistical models 、 The best choice for data processing and model evaluation .


Except for the use of SciPy In the library NumPy Beyond arrays and scientific models , It can also work with Pandas Phase integration , To achieve effective data processing .StatsModels Good at statistical calculation 、 Statistical testing and data exploration .


Here is StatsModels List of specific functions of :

  • Make up for NumPy and SciPy Library defects , Ability to perform statistical tests and hypothesis tests .

  • Provides R-style The realization of the formula , For better statistical analysis . Statisticians can use R Language .

  • Because it can widely support statistical computation , Therefore, it can be used to implement generalized linear models (GLM,Generalised Linear Models) And ordinary least second order linear regression (OLM,Ordinaryleast-square Linear Regression) Model .

  • Support includes hypothesis testing ( Zero theory ,Null Theory) Internal statistical test .



Data visualization


Visualization is data visualization through , To effectively express key insights from data . It includes : graphics 、 Chart 、 Mind mapping 、 Thermogram 、 Histogram 、 Density isograph , Then we study the correlation between various data variables .image.png

Here it is , We'll focus on those that can be used with built-in functions , To study the dependence of various data Python Data visualization package .


They are :

  • Matplotlib

  • Seaborn

  • Plotly

  • Bokeh


①Matplotlib


Matplotlib yes Python The most basic data visualization software package in . It supports things like : Histogram 、 Bar chart 、 Power spectrum 、 Error chart and other graphics .


Through the 2D graphics library , Users can generate all kinds of clear graphics , For exploratory data (EDA) Is crucial .


Here is Matplotlib List of specific functions of :

  • Users can target Matplotlib Choose the right line style 、 Font style 、 Format axis and other functions , In order to easily draw a variety of graphics .

  • As a tool for reasoning quantitative information , It can be created by creating graphics , To help users understand trends 、 Patterns and associations .

  • As Matplotlib One of the best features of a software package , Its Pyplot The module provides with MATLAB Very similar user interface .

  • Provides object-oriented API modular , Through things like Tkinter、wxPython、 as well as Qt etc. GUI Tools , Integrating graphics into applications .


②Seaborn

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Although with Matplotlib Library Based , But with the Matplotlib comparison ,Seaborn Can be used to create more attractive and descriptive statistical charts .


In addition to providing extensive support for data visualization ,Seaborn It also comes with a built-in dataset oriented API, It can be used to study the relationship between multiple variables .


Here is Seaborn List of specific functions of :

  • It can analyze and visualize univariate and bivariate data points , Provides options to compare the current data with other data subsets .

  • Linear regression models for various target variables , Support automatic statistical estimation and graphical representation .

  • By providing the execution of high-level abstract functions , Can build multi graph grid (multi-plotgrids) Complex visualization of .

  • Through various built-in themes , Can realize the style setting , And create Matplotlib chart .


③Plotlyimage.png

As a well-known figure Python One of the Libraries ,Ploty Through interactive graphics , In order to facilitate users to understand the dependence between target variables and prediction variables .


It can be used to analyze and visualize Statistics , For Finance 、 Business and scientific data , Generate clear graphics 、 Subgraphs 、 Thermogram 、 as well as 3D Charts, etc. .


Here is Ploty List of specific functions of :

  • have 30  Multiple chart types , Include :3D Chart 、 Science and Statistics 、SVG Maps, etc , Can achieve clear visualization .

  • adopt Python API, You can create a diagram by 、 graphics 、 The text and Web The public of images / Private dashboard .

  • Can be created based on JSON Visual image of format serialization , Users can go to R、MATLAB、Julia Easy access to them on different platforms .

  • By named Plotly Grid The built-in API, Users can import data directly into Ploty Environmental Science .


④Bokeh

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Bokeh yes Python One of the most interactive libraries in , Can be used for Web The browser builds a descriptive graphical representation .


It can easily handle large datasets , And build a generic diagram , In turn, it helps to implement a wide range of EDA.


By defining perfect features ,Bokeh Be able to build interactive charts 、 Dashboards and data applications .


Here is Bokeh List of specific functions of :

  • It can be done with a simple command , Help users quickly create complex statistical charts .

  • Support HTML、Notebook、 And output in server form . It also supports multi language binding , Include R、Python、lua、 as well as Julia etc. .

  • Through and with Flask and Django Integration of , You can express specific visualizations on the application .

  • By providing support for visualization files , Users can convert it to something like Matplotlib、Seaborn、 as well as ggplot And other libraries .



machine learning


Create results that can be accurately predicted 、 A machine learning model for solving specific problems , Is the most important part of any data science project .


However , Implementing machine learning and deep learning often involves thousands of lines of code . And when you need to solve complex problems through neural networks , The corresponding model becomes more cumbersome .


But fortunately , adopt Python A variety of self-contained software packages , We don't have to write any algorithms , It is easy to implement various machine learning technology applications .

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Here it is , We'll focus on those that can be used with built-in functions , To achieve a variety of machine learning algorithms, highly recommended machine learning software package .


They are :

  • Scikit-learn

  • XGBoost

  • ELI5


①Scikit-learnimage.png

As data modeling and model evaluation Python One of the Libraries ,Scikit-learn It comes with a variety of supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms .


meanwhile , It can be used in collective learning (Ensemble Learning) And promoting machine learning (Boosting Machine Learning) A clear definition of .


Here is Scikit List of specific functions of :

  • By providing a standard data set ( Such as :Iris and Boston House Price), To assist users in machine learning .

  • Built in methods that can be used to perform supervised and unsupervised machine learning , Including parsing 、 clustering 、 classification 、 Return to 、 As well as the anomaly detection of various files .

  • With built-in features for feature extraction and feature selection , It can help identify important attributes in the data .

  • By performing cross validation , It provides different ways to evaluate model performance , The performance of the model can be optimized 、 And adjust the parameters .


②XGBoostimage.png

XGBoost That is to say “ Extreme gradient enhancement (Extreme Gradient Boosting)”, It belongs to Boosting Machine learning Python software package . By gradient enhancement ,XGBoost It can improve the performance and accuracy of machine learning model .


Here is XGBoost List of specific functions of :

  • Because it uses C++  Compiling , therefore XGBoost It is considered to be the fastest way to improve the performance of machine learning models 、 And one of the effective software libraries .

  • because XGBoost The core algorithm of is parallelizable , Therefore, it can effectively utilize the performance of multi-core computers . meanwhile ,XGBoost Data sets can also be processed in large numbers 、 And can carry out network work across multiple data sets .

  • Provides that you can use to perform cross validation , Parameter adjustment , Regularization , And internal parameters that handle missing values , It can also provide with Scikit-learn Compatible API.

  • because XGBoost Often used in top data science and machine learning competitions , Therefore, it is generally considered to be superior to other algorithms .


③ELI5


As another Python library ,ELI5 It mainly focuses on improving the performance of machine learning models . Because it's relatively new , So it's usually associated with XGBoost、LightGBM、 as well as CatBoost To be used together , And then improve the accuracy of machine learning model .


Here is ELI5 List of specific functions of :

  • Provide with Scikit-learn Integration of software packages , To represent the importance of characteristics , The decision tree and the integrated prediction based on the tree are explained .

  • Able to analyze and explain by XGBClassifier、XGBRegressor、LGBMClassifier、LGBMRegressor、CatBoostClassifier、CatBoostRegressor and Catboost The predictions made .

  • It provides support for implementing various algorithms , And be able to check the black box model . Its TextExplainer The module can interpret the predictions made by the text classifier .

  • Can assist in the analysis of those by linear regression 、 And the classifier gives Scikit Learn the general linear model (GLM,General Linear Models) Weight and prediction of .


Deep learning


The evolution of machine learning and artificial intelligence is inseparable from deep learning . With the introduction of deep learning , We can build complex models , And deal with huge datasets .


With Python A variety of deep learning packages available , We can easily build a variety of efficient neural networks .image.png

Here it is , We'll focus on those that can be used with built-in functions , To realize the deep learning software package of complex neural network which is highly recommended .


They are :

  • TensorFlow

  • Pytorch

  • Keras


①TensorFlowimage.png

As deep learning Python One of the Libraries ,TensorFlow Is an open source library for data stream programming across tasks .


TensorFlow Through a symbolic math library , To build powerful and accurate neural networks . It provides an intuitive multi platform programming interface , High scalability can be achieved in different domains .


Here is TensorFlow List of specific functions of :

  • Facing large projects and data sets , It can build and train multiple neural networks .

  • In addition to supporting neural networks , It also provides various functions and methods for performing statistical analysis . for example : It comes with the ability to create probabilistic models and Bayesian Networks ( Include :Bernoulli、Chi2、Uniform、Gamma etc. ) Built in features of .

  • TensorFlow Provides layered components , These components can perform hierarchical operations on weights and deviations , And by implementing regularization techniques ( for example :batch normalization、Dropout etc. ) To improve the performance of the model .

  • It comes with a device called TensorBoard The visualization program of , The visualization program can create interactive and visual graphics , To understand the dependence of data characteristics .


②Pytorchimage.png

Pytorch It's based on Python Open source software package for scientific computing , Deep data sets can be implemented on large neural networks .


Facebook Use this software library to develop its neural network , Then, the tasks such as face recognition and automatic marking are realized .


Here is Pytorch List of specific functions of :

  • Provides easy to use API, It can be integrated with other data science and machine learning frameworks .

  • Be similar to NumPy,Pytorch Provide what is called Tensors Multidimensional array of , And can be used in GPU On .

  • It can not only be used to model large neural networks , And it also provides an interface , Support up to 200 A variety of mathematical operations that can be used for statistical analysis .

  • The code can be executed on each node , To create dynamic calculation graphs , And then assist in time series analysis , And be able to forecast sales in real time .


③Kerasimage.png

Also as Python One of the best deep learning libraries in China ,Keras Be able to build 、 analysis 、 Evaluating and improving neural networks provides comprehensive support .


Keras Is based on Theano and TensorFlow Python Library built . It provides a variety of additional functions needed to build complex large-scale deep learning models .


Here is Keras List of specific functions of :

  • Support for the construction of all types of neural networks , Include : Complete connection 、 Convolution 、 Pooling 、 loop 、 And embedding . Able to target large datasets and problems , By further combining the various models , To create a complete neural network .

  • It has built-in functions to perform neural network calculations , Include : Define layers and goals , Activate function ; Through optimizer and lots of tools , To easily process image and text data .

  • It comes with some preprocessed data sets and trained models , Include :MNIST、VGG、Inception、SqueezeNet、 as well as ResNet etc. .

  • extensible , It can support new functions and methods .



natural language processing


Google Application Alexa To accurately predict what users are searching for , And in the Siri Other chat robots will use natural language processing (NLP) technology .


NLP In the design AI In the system , Played a huge role . This system helps to describe the interaction between human language and computer .image.png

Here it is , We'll focus on those that can be used with built-in functions , To achieve advanced AI The system is a highly recommended natural language processing package .


They are :

  • NLTK

  • spaCy

  • Gensim


①NLTK( Natural language toolkit ,Natural Language ToolKit)image.png

NLTK Considered to be excellent at analyzing human language and behavior Python software package . As the first choice for most data scientists ,NLTK The library provides an easy-to-use interface , It includes 50 A variety of corpora and lexical resources , Help to describe the interaction between people , And building recommendation engines AI System .


Here is NLTK List of specific functions of :

  • Provides a complete set of data and text processing methods , Can be used for text analysis classification 、 Mark 、 Word stem 、 Parsing and semantic reasoning .

  • Included for industrial use NLP The wrapper for the library , By building complex systems , To assist in text categorization , And look for behavioral trends and patterns of human speech .

  • It comes with the implementation of computational linguistics (Computational Linguistics) A comprehensive guide to 、 And complete API Documentation guide , Can help novice programmers to use NLP.

  • It has a huge community of users and professionals , Can provide a comprehensive tutorial and quick guide , It is convenient for users to learn how to use Python Computational linguistics .


②spaCyimage.png

As a free Python Open source library ,spaCy It can be used to implement advanced natural language processing (NLP) Related technology .


When you're dealing with a lot of text , Can pass spaCy To easily learn the morphological meaning of the text , And how to classify it into human intelligible language .


Here is spaCy List of specific functions of :

  • Besides language computing ,spaCy Separate modules are also available , Can be used to build 、 Training and testing various statistical models , It can help users understand the meaning of words better .

  • It comes with various built-in language annotations , It can help to analyze the grammatical structure of sentences . This not only helps to understand the various tests , It also helps to find out the relationship between different words in a sentence .

  • Can be used for complex nested tags that contain abbreviations and multiple punctuation marks (nestedtokens), To achieve tokenization .

  • Besides its powerful function and efficiency ,spaCy And support 51 More than one language .


③Gensimimage.png

Gensim It's another open source Python software package , This modeling aims to extract semantic topics from large documents and texts , To deal with by means of statistical models and linguistic calculations , And then analyze and predict human behavior .


Whether it's raw data or unstructured data , It has the ability to handle and deal with huge data sets .


Here is Genism List of specific functions of :

  • By understanding the statistical semantics of each word , To build an effective classification document model .

  • It comes with something like Word2Vec、FastText、 Latent semantic analysis (Latent Semantic Analysis) Text processing algorithms like this .

    These algorithms can study statistical co-occurrence patterns in documents , By filtering out unnecessary words , And then build a model with only important features .

  • Provide for import 、 And support a variety of data formats I/O Wrappers and readers .

  • Its simple and intuitive interface , It can be used by beginners easily . meanwhile , Its API The learning curve is gentle , Therefore, it is loved by developers from all walks of life .








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