Notes on Python cookbook 3rd (2.17): Handling HTML and XML in strings

Giant ship 2020-11-15 01:20:24
notes python cookbook 3rd rd


Processing in a string html and xml

problem

You want the HTML perhaps XML Entities such as &entity; or &#code; Replace with the corresponding text . also , You need to convert specific characters in the text ( such as <, >, or &).

solution

If you want to replace... In a text string ‘<’ perhaps ‘>’ , Use html.escape() Functions can be done easily . such as :

>>> s = 'Elements are written as "<tag>text</tag>".'
>>> import html
>>> print(s)
Elements are written as "<tag>text</tag>".
>>> print(html.escape(s))
Elements are written as &quot;&lt;tag&gt;text&lt;/tag&gt;&quot;.
>>> # Disable escaping of quotes
>>> print(html.escape(s, quote=False))
Elements are written as "&lt;tag&gt;text&lt;/tag&gt;".
>>>

If you're dealing with ASCII Text , And want to make the wrong ASCII The encoding entity corresponding to the text is embedded , You can give some I/O Function transfer parameters errors='xmlcharrefreplace' To achieve this goal . such as :

>>> s = 'Spicy Jalapeño'
>>> s.encode('ascii', errors='xmlcharrefreplace')
b'Spicy Jalape&#241;o'
>>>

In order to replace the encoding entity in the text , You need to use another method . If you're dealing with HTML perhaps XML Text , Try to use a suitable one first HTML perhaps XML Parser . Usually , These tools will automatically replace these encoded values , You don't have to worry about .

occasionally , If you receive some raw text with encoded values , It needs to be replaced manually , You usually just use HTML perhaps XML Some related tool functions of parser / The method can . such as :

>>> s = 'Spicy &quot;Jalape&#241;o&quot.'
>>> from html.parser import HTMLParser
>>> p = HTMLParser()
>>> p.unescape(s)
'Spicy "Jalapeño".'
>>>
>>> t = 'The prompt is &gt;&gt;&gt;'
>>> from xml.sax.saxutils import unescape
>>> unescape(t)
'The prompt is >>>'
>>>

Discuss

It's generating HTML perhaps XML In the text , If the correct conversion of special marker characters is a detail that can easily be ignored . Especially when you use print() Function or other string formatting to produce output . Use something like html.escape() The tool function can easily solve this kind of problem .

If you want to deal with text in other ways , There are also some other utility functions, such as xml.sax.saxutils.unescapge() Can help you . However , You should first investigate how to use a proper parser . such as , If you're dealing with HTML or XML Text , Use some parsing module, such as html.parse or xml.etree.ElementTree It has automatically processed the replacement details for you .

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