wxpython入门第十一步(俄罗斯方块)

一丝不苟的克雷吉 2020-11-15 19:48:14
入门 一步 十一 wxpython 门第


俄罗斯方块

俄罗斯方块是由俄罗斯程序员Alexey Pajitnov在1985年设计和编程的。

在这个游戏中,我们有七种不同的形状:S形,Z形,T形,L形,线形,镜面L形,和一个方形。每一个形状都是由四个小正方形组成的。这些形状都是从棋盘上掉下来的。俄罗斯方块游戏的目的是移动和旋转这些形状,使它们尽可能地适合。如果我们成功地形成一排,这一排就会被销毁,我们就会得分。我们玩俄罗斯方块游戏,直到我们达到顶点。

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/tetrominoes.png" alt="Tetrominoes" style="zoom:50%;" />

wxPython 是一个用于创建应用程序的工具包。还有一些其他的库比如pygame是针对创建电脑游戏的,但wxPython也可以用来创建游戏。

开发过程

我们的俄罗斯方块游戏没有图像,我们使用wxPython中提供的绘图API绘制俄罗斯方块。每一个电脑游戏的背后,都有一个数学模型。俄罗斯方块中也是如此。

游戏背后的一些基础想法。

  • 用wx.Timer来创建一个游戏循环。
  • 画出不同形状
  • 形状以方块为单位移动(而不是以像素为单位)。
  • 在数学上,棋盘是一个简单的数字列表。
#tetris_game.py
import wx
import random
class Tetris(wx.Frame):
def __init__(self, parent):
wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent, size=(180, 380),
style=wx.DEFAULT_FRAME_STYLE ^ wx.RESIZE_BORDER ^ wx.MAXIMIZE_BOX)
self.initFrame()
def initFrame(self):
#状态栏 显示分数
self.statusbar = self.CreateStatusBar()
self.statusbar.SetStatusText('0')
#主board
self.board = Board(self)
self.board.SetFocus()
self.board.start()
self.SetTitle("俄罗斯方块")
self.Centre()
class Board(wx.Panel):
BoardWidth = 10
BoardHeight = 22
Speed = 300
ID_TIMER = 1
def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
super(Board, self).__init__(*args, **kw)
self.initBoard()
def initBoard(self):
self.timer = wx.Timer(self, Board.ID_TIMER)
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.curPiece = Shape()
self.nextPiece = Shape()
self.curX = 0
self.curY = 0
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.board = []
self.isStarted = False
self.isPaused = False
self.Bind(wx.EVT_PAINT, self.OnPaint)
self.Bind(wx.EVT_KEY_DOWN, self.OnKeyDown)
self.Bind(wx.EVT_TIMER, self.OnTimer, id=Board.ID_TIMER)
self.clearBoard()
def shapeAt(self, x, y):
return self.board[(y * Board.BoardWidth) + x]
def setShapeAt(self, x, y, shape):
self.board[(y * Board.BoardWidth) + x] = shape
def squareWidth(self):
return self.GetClientSize().GetWidth() // Board.BoardWidth
def squareHeight(self):
return self.GetClientSize().GetHeight() // Board.BoardHeight
def start(self):
if self.isPaused:
return
self.isStarted = True
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.clearBoard()
self.newPiece()
self.timer.Start(Board.Speed)
def pause(self):
if not self.isStarted:
return
self.isPaused = not self.isPaused
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
if self.isPaused:
self.timer.Stop()
statusbar.SetStatusText('paused')
else:
self.timer.Start(Board.Speed)
statusbar.SetStatusText(str(self.numLinesRemoved))
self.Refresh()
def clearBoard(self):
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight * Board.BoardWidth):
self.board.append(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
def OnPaint(self, event):
dc = wx.PaintDC(self)
size = self.GetClientSize()
boardTop = size.GetHeight() - Board.BoardHeight * self.squareHeight()
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
shape = self.shapeAt(j, Board.BoardHeight - i - 1)
if shape != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
self.drawSquare(dc,
0 + j * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + i * self.squareHeight(), shape)
if self.curPiece.shape() != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.drawSquare(dc, 0 + x * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + (Board.BoardHeight - y - 1) * self.squareHeight(),
self.curPiece.shape())
def OnKeyDown(self, event):
if not self.isStarted or self.curPiece.shape() == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
event.Skip()
return
keycode = event.GetKeyCode()
if keycode == ord('P') or keycode == ord('p'):
self.pause()
return
if self.isPaused:
return
elif keycode == wx.WXK_LEFT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX - 1, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_RIGHT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX + 1, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_DOWN:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece.rotatedRight(), self.curX, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_UP:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece.rotatedLeft(), self.curX, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_SPACE:
self.dropDown()
elif keycode == ord('D') or keycode == ord('d'):
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()
def OnTimer(self, event):
if event.GetId() == Board.ID_TIMER:
if self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.newPiece()
else:
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()
def dropDown(self):
newY = self.curY
while newY > 0:
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, newY - 1):
break
newY -= 1
self.pieceDropped()
def oneLineDown(self):
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY - 1):
self.pieceDropped()
def pieceDropped(self):
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.setShapeAt(x, y, self.curPiece.shape())
self.removeFullLines()
if not self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.newPiece()
def removeFullLines(self):
numFullLines = 0
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
rowsToRemove = []
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
n = 0
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
if not self.shapeAt(j, i) == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
n = n + 1
if n == 10:
rowsToRemove.append(i)
rowsToRemove.reverse()
for m in rowsToRemove:
for k in range(m, Board.BoardHeight):
for l in range(Board.BoardWidth):
self.setShapeAt(l, k, self.shapeAt(l, k + 1))
numFullLines = numFullLines + len(rowsToRemove)
if numFullLines > 0:
self.numLinesRemoved = self.numLinesRemoved + numFullLines
statusbar.SetStatusText(str(self.numLinesRemoved))
self.isWaitingAfterLine = True
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.Refresh()
def newPiece(self):
self.curPiece = self.nextPiece
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
self.nextPiece.setRandomShape()
self.curX = Board.BoardWidth // 2 + 1
self.curY = Board.BoardHeight - 1 + self.curPiece.minY()
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY):
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.timer.Stop()
self.isStarted = False
statusbar.SetStatusText('Game over')
def tryMove(self, newPiece, newX, newY):
for i in range(4):
x = newX + newPiece.x(i)
y = newY - newPiece.y(i)
if x < 0 or x >= Board.BoardWidth or y < 0 or y >= Board.BoardHeight:
return False
if self.shapeAt(x, y) != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
return False
self.curPiece = newPiece
self.curX = newX
self.curY = newY
self.Refresh()
return True
def drawSquare(self, dc, x, y, shape):
colors = ['#000000', '#CC6666', '#66CC66', '#6666CC',
'#CCCC66', '#CC66CC', '#66CCCC', '#DAAA00']
light = ['#000000', '#F89FAB', '#79FC79', '#7979FC',
'#FCFC79', '#FC79FC', '#79FCFC', '#FCC600']
dark = ['#000000', '#803C3B', '#3B803B', '#3B3B80',
'#80803B', '#803B80', '#3B8080', '#806200']
pen = wx.Pen(light[shape])
pen.SetCap(wx.CAP_PROJECTING)
dc.SetPen(pen)
dc.DrawLine(x, y + self.squareHeight() - 1, x, y)
dc.DrawLine(x, y, x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y)
darkpen = wx.Pen(dark[shape])
darkpen.SetCap(wx.CAP_PROJECTING)
dc.SetPen(darkpen)
dc.DrawLine(x + 1, y + self.squareHeight() - 1,
x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y + self.squareHeight() - 1)
dc.DrawLine(x + self.squareWidth() - 1,
y + self.squareHeight() - 1, x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y + 1)
dc.SetPen(wx.TRANSPARENT_PEN)
dc.SetBrush(wx.Brush(colors[shape]))
dc.DrawRectangle(x + 1, y + 1, self.squareWidth() - 2,
self.squareHeight() - 2)
class Tetrominoes(object):
NoShape = 0
ZShape = 1
SShape = 2
LineShape = 3
TShape = 4
SquareShape = 5
LShape = 6
MirroredLShape = 7
class Shape(object):
coordsTable = (
((0, 0), (0, 0), (0, 0), (0, 0)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (-1, 0), (-1, 1)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2)),
((-1, 0), (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 1)),
((0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1)),
((-1, -1), (0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1)),
((1, -1), (0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1))
)
def __init__(self):
self.coords = [[0,0] for i in range(4)]
self.pieceShape = Tetrominoes.NoShape
self.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
def shape(self):
return self.pieceShape
def setShape(self, shape):
table = Shape.coordsTable[shape]
for i in range(4):
for j in range(2):
self.coords[i][j] = table[i][j]
self.pieceShape = shape
def setRandomShape(self):
self.setShape(random.randint(1, 7))
def x(self, index):
return self.coords[index][0]
def y(self, index):
return self.coords[index][1]
def setX(self, index, x):
self.coords[index][0] = x
def setY(self, index, y):
self.coords[index][1] = y
def minX(self):
m = self.coords[0][0]
for i in range(4):
m = min(m, self.coords[i][0])
return m
def maxX(self):
m = self.coords[0][0]
for i in range(4):
m = max(m, self.coords[i][0])
return m
def minY(self):
m = self.coords[0][1]
for i in range(4):
m = min(m, self.coords[i][1])
return m
def maxY(self):
m = self.coords[0][1]
for i in range(4):
m = max(m, self.coords[i][1])
return m
def rotatedLeft(self):
if self.pieceShape == Tetrominoes.SquareShape:
return self
result = Shape()
result.pieceShape = self.pieceShape
for i in range(4):
result.setX(i, self.y(i))
result.setY(i, -self.x(i))
return result
def rotatedRight(self):
if self.pieceShape == Tetrominoes.SquareShape:
return self
result = Shape()
result.pieceShape = self.pieceShape
for i in range(4):
result.setX(i, -self.y(i))
result.setY(i, self.x(i))
return result
def main():
app = wx.App()
ex = Tetris(None)
ex.Show()
app.MainLoop()
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/image-20201115192956845.png" alt="image-20201115192956845" style="zoom:50%;" />

应用程序启动后,立即开始。我们可以通过按p键来暂停游戏。空格键会将掉落的俄罗斯方块立即掉到底部。d键则会使棋子加速下落。方向下键会旋转形状。游戏以恒定的速度进行,分数是我们删除的排数。

...
self.curX = 0
self.curY = 0
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.board = []
...

在开始游戏循环之前,我们先初始化一些重要的变量。self.board变量是一个从0到7的数字列表。它代表各种形状的位置和形状在棋盘上的遗迹。

for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
shape = self.shapeAt(j, Board.BoardHeight - i - 1)
if shape != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
self.drawSquare(dc,
0 + j * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + i * self.squareHeight(), shape)

游戏的绘画分为两个步骤。第一步,我们画出所有的形状,或者是掉到棋盘底部的形状。所有的方块都被保存在self.board列表变量中。我们使用shapeAt()方法访问它。

if self.curPiece.shape() != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.drawSquare(dc, 0 + x * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + (Board.BoardHeight - y - 1) * self.squareHeight(),
self.curPiece.shape())

下一步是画出落下的实际作品。

elif keycode == wx.WXK_LEFT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX - 1, self.curY)

在OnKeyDown()方法中,我们检查是否有按键被按下。如果按了左边的方向键,就会尝试将棋子向左移动。tryMove是因为棋子可能无法移动(边界上)。

def tryMove(self, newPiece, newX, newY):
for i in range(4):
x = newX + newPiece.x(i)
y = newY - newPiece.y(i)
if x < 0 or x >= Board.BoardWidth or y < 0 or y >= Board.BoardHeight:
return False
if self.shapeAt(x, y) != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
return False
self.curPiece = newPiece
self.curX = newX
self.curY = newY
self.Refresh()
return True

tryMove()方法中,我们尝试移动我们的形状。如果形状在棋盘的边缘或与其他棋子相邻,我们返回 "False";否则我们将当前下落的棋子放置到新的位置并返回 "True"。

def OnTimer(self, event):
if event.GetId() == Board.ID_TIMER:
if self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.newPiece()
else:
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()

OnTimer()方法中,我们要么在前一个棋子落到底部后,创建一个新的棋子,要么将落下的棋子向下移动一行。

def removeFullLines(self):
numFullLines = 0
rowsToRemove = []
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
n = 0
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
if not self.shapeAt(j, i) == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
n = n + 1
if n == 10:
rowsToRemove.append(i)
rowsToRemove.reverse()
for m in rowsToRemove:
for k in range(m, Board.BoardHeight):
for l in range(Board.BoardWidth):
self.setShapeAt(l, k, self.shapeAt(l, k + 1))
...

如果形状到达底部,就调用removeFullLines()方法。首先我们找出所有的满行,并将其删除。我们的做法是将当前要删除的满行之上的所有行向下移动一行。

def newPiece(self):
self.curPiece = self.nextPiece
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
self.nextPiece.setRandomShape()
self.curX = Board.BoardWidth / 2 + 1
self.curY = Board.BoardHeight - 1 + self.curPiece.minY()
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY):
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.timer.Stop()
self.isStarted = False
statusbar.SetStatusText('Game over')

newPiece()方法随机创建一个新的俄罗斯方块。如果这个棋子不能进入它的初始位置,游戏就结束了。

Shape类保存了俄罗斯方块的信息。

self.coords = [[0,0] for i in range(4)]

创建后我们创建一个空的坐标列表。该列表将保存俄罗斯方块片的坐标。例如,元组(0,-1),(0,0),(-1,0),(-1,-1)代表一个旋转的S形。下图说明了这个形状。

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/coordinates.png" alt="Coordinates" style="zoom:50%;" />

当画出当前落下的棋子时,我们在self.curXself.curY位置画出它。然后我们看坐标表,把四个方块都画出来。

版权声明
本文为[一丝不苟的克雷吉]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000038176070

  1. 利用Python爬虫获取招聘网站职位信息
  2. Using Python crawler to obtain job information of recruitment website
  3. Several highly rated Python libraries arrow, jsonpath, psutil and tenacity are recommended
  4. Python装饰器
  5. Python实现LDAP认证
  6. Python decorator
  7. Implementing LDAP authentication with Python
  8. Vscode configures Python development environment!
  9. In Python, how dare you say you can't log module? ️
  10. 我收藏的有关Python的电子书和资料
  11. python 中 lambda的一些tips
  12. python中字典的一些tips
  13. python 用生成器生成斐波那契数列
  14. python脚本转pyc踩了个坑。。。
  15. My collection of e-books and materials about Python
  16. Some tips of lambda in Python
  17. Some tips of dictionary in Python
  18. Using Python generator to generate Fibonacci sequence
  19. The conversion of Python script to PyC stepped on a pit...
  20. Python游戏开发,pygame模块,Python实现扫雷小游戏
  21. Python game development, pyGame module, python implementation of minesweeping games
  22. Python实用工具,email模块,Python实现邮件远程控制自己电脑
  23. Python utility, email module, python realizes mail remote control of its own computer
  24. 毫无头绪的自学Python,你可能连门槛都摸不到!【最佳学习路线】
  25. Python读取二进制文件代码方法解析
  26. Python字典的实现原理
  27. Without a clue, you may not even touch the threshold【 Best learning route]
  28. Parsing method of Python reading binary file code
  29. Implementation principle of Python dictionary
  30. You must know the function of pandas to parse JSON data - JSON_ normalize()
  31. Python实用案例,私人定制,Python自动化生成爱豆专属2021日历
  32. Python practical case, private customization, python automatic generation of Adu exclusive 2021 calendar
  33. 《Python实例》震惊了,用Python这么简单实现了聊天系统的脏话,广告检测
  34. "Python instance" was shocked and realized the dirty words and advertisement detection of the chat system in Python
  35. Convolutional neural network processing sequence for Python deep learning
  36. Python data structure and algorithm (1) -- enum type enum
  37. 超全大厂算法岗百问百答(推荐系统/机器学习/深度学习/C++/Spark/python)
  38. 【Python进阶】你真的明白NumPy中的ndarray吗?
  39. All questions and answers for algorithm posts of super large factories (recommended system / machine learning / deep learning / C + + / spark / Python)
  40. [advanced Python] do you really understand ndarray in numpy?
  41. 【Python进阶】Python进阶专栏栏主自述:不忘初心,砥砺前行
  42. [advanced Python] Python advanced column main readme: never forget the original intention and forge ahead
  43. python垃圾回收和缓存管理
  44. java调用Python程序
  45. java调用Python程序
  46. Python常用函数有哪些?Python基础入门课程
  47. Python garbage collection and cache management
  48. Java calling Python program
  49. Java calling Python program
  50. What functions are commonly used in Python? Introduction to Python Basics
  51. Python basic knowledge
  52. Anaconda5.2 安装 Python 库(MySQLdb)的方法
  53. Python实现对脑电数据情绪分析
  54. Anaconda 5.2 method of installing Python Library (mysqldb)
  55. Python implements emotion analysis of EEG data
  56. Master some advanced usage of Python in 30 seconds, which makes others envy it
  57. python爬取百度图片并对图片做一系列处理
  58. Python crawls Baidu pictures and does a series of processing on them
  59. python链接mysql数据库
  60. Python link MySQL database