## 俄罗斯方块

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/tetrominoes.png" alt="Tetrominoes" style="zoom:50%;" />

wxPython 是一个用于创建应用程序的工具包。还有一些其他的库比如pygame是针对创建电脑游戏的，但wxPython也可以用来创建游戏。

### 开发过程

• 用wx.Timer来创建一个游戏循环。
• 画出不同形状
• 形状以方块为单位移动（而不是以像素为单位）。
• 在数学上，棋盘是一个简单的数字列表。
``````#tetris_game.py
import wx
import random
class Tetris(wx.Frame):
def __init__(self, parent):
wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent, size=(180, 380),
style=wx.DEFAULT_FRAME_STYLE ^ wx.RESIZE_BORDER ^ wx.MAXIMIZE_BOX)
self.initFrame()
def initFrame(self):
#状态栏 显示分数
self.statusbar = self.CreateStatusBar()
self.statusbar.SetStatusText('0')
#主board
self.board = Board(self)
self.board.SetFocus()
self.board.start()
self.SetTitle("俄罗斯方块")
self.Centre()
class Board(wx.Panel):
BoardWidth = 10
BoardHeight = 22
Speed = 300
ID_TIMER = 1
def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
super(Board, self).__init__(*args, **kw)
self.initBoard()
def initBoard(self):
self.timer = wx.Timer(self, Board.ID_TIMER)
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.curPiece = Shape()
self.nextPiece = Shape()
self.curX = 0
self.curY = 0
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.board = []
self.isStarted = False
self.isPaused = False
self.Bind(wx.EVT_PAINT, self.OnPaint)
self.Bind(wx.EVT_KEY_DOWN, self.OnKeyDown)
self.Bind(wx.EVT_TIMER, self.OnTimer, id=Board.ID_TIMER)
self.clearBoard()
def shapeAt(self, x, y):
return self.board[(y * Board.BoardWidth) + x]
def setShapeAt(self, x, y, shape):
self.board[(y * Board.BoardWidth) + x] = shape
def squareWidth(self):
return self.GetClientSize().GetWidth() // Board.BoardWidth
def squareHeight(self):
return self.GetClientSize().GetHeight() // Board.BoardHeight
def start(self):
if self.isPaused:
return
self.isStarted = True
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.clearBoard()
self.newPiece()
self.timer.Start(Board.Speed)
def pause(self):
if not self.isStarted:
return
self.isPaused = not self.isPaused
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
if self.isPaused:
self.timer.Stop()
statusbar.SetStatusText('paused')
else:
self.timer.Start(Board.Speed)
statusbar.SetStatusText(str(self.numLinesRemoved))
self.Refresh()
def clearBoard(self):
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight * Board.BoardWidth):
self.board.append(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
def OnPaint(self, event):
dc = wx.PaintDC(self)
size = self.GetClientSize()
boardTop = size.GetHeight() - Board.BoardHeight * self.squareHeight()
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
shape = self.shapeAt(j, Board.BoardHeight - i - 1)
if shape != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
self.drawSquare(dc,
0 + j * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + i * self.squareHeight(), shape)
if self.curPiece.shape() != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.drawSquare(dc, 0 + x * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + (Board.BoardHeight - y - 1) * self.squareHeight(),
self.curPiece.shape())
def OnKeyDown(self, event):
if not self.isStarted or self.curPiece.shape() == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
event.Skip()
return
keycode = event.GetKeyCode()
if keycode == ord('P') or keycode == ord('p'):
self.pause()
return
if self.isPaused:
return
elif keycode == wx.WXK_LEFT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX - 1, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_RIGHT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX + 1, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_DOWN:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece.rotatedRight(), self.curX, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_UP:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece.rotatedLeft(), self.curX, self.curY)
elif keycode == wx.WXK_SPACE:
self.dropDown()
elif keycode == ord('D') or keycode == ord('d'):
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()
def OnTimer(self, event):
if event.GetId() == Board.ID_TIMER:
if self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.newPiece()
else:
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()
def dropDown(self):
newY = self.curY
while newY > 0:
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, newY - 1):
break
newY -= 1
self.pieceDropped()
def oneLineDown(self):
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY - 1):
self.pieceDropped()
def pieceDropped(self):
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.setShapeAt(x, y, self.curPiece.shape())
self.removeFullLines()
if not self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.newPiece()
def removeFullLines(self):
numFullLines = 0
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
rowsToRemove = []
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
n = 0
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
if not self.shapeAt(j, i) == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
n = n + 1
if n == 10:
rowsToRemove.append(i)
rowsToRemove.reverse()
for m in rowsToRemove:
for k in range(m, Board.BoardHeight):
for l in range(Board.BoardWidth):
self.setShapeAt(l, k, self.shapeAt(l, k + 1))
numFullLines = numFullLines + len(rowsToRemove)
if numFullLines > 0:
self.numLinesRemoved = self.numLinesRemoved + numFullLines
statusbar.SetStatusText(str(self.numLinesRemoved))
self.isWaitingAfterLine = True
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.Refresh()
def newPiece(self):
self.curPiece = self.nextPiece
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
self.nextPiece.setRandomShape()
self.curX = Board.BoardWidth // 2 + 1
self.curY = Board.BoardHeight - 1 + self.curPiece.minY()
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY):
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.timer.Stop()
self.isStarted = False
statusbar.SetStatusText('Game over')
def tryMove(self, newPiece, newX, newY):
for i in range(4):
x = newX + newPiece.x(i)
y = newY - newPiece.y(i)
if x < 0 or x >= Board.BoardWidth or y < 0 or y >= Board.BoardHeight:
return False
if self.shapeAt(x, y) != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
return False
self.curPiece = newPiece
self.curX = newX
self.curY = newY
self.Refresh()
return True
def drawSquare(self, dc, x, y, shape):
colors = ['#000000', '#CC6666', '#66CC66', '#6666CC',
'#CCCC66', '#CC66CC', '#66CCCC', '#DAAA00']
light = ['#000000', '#F89FAB', '#79FC79', '#7979FC',
'#FCFC79', '#FC79FC', '#79FCFC', '#FCC600']
dark = ['#000000', '#803C3B', '#3B803B', '#3B3B80',
'#80803B', '#803B80', '#3B8080', '#806200']
pen = wx.Pen(light[shape])
pen.SetCap(wx.CAP_PROJECTING)
dc.SetPen(pen)
dc.DrawLine(x, y + self.squareHeight() - 1, x, y)
dc.DrawLine(x, y, x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y)
darkpen = wx.Pen(dark[shape])
darkpen.SetCap(wx.CAP_PROJECTING)
dc.SetPen(darkpen)
dc.DrawLine(x + 1, y + self.squareHeight() - 1,
x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y + self.squareHeight() - 1)
dc.DrawLine(x + self.squareWidth() - 1,
y + self.squareHeight() - 1, x + self.squareWidth() - 1, y + 1)
dc.SetPen(wx.TRANSPARENT_PEN)
dc.SetBrush(wx.Brush(colors[shape]))
dc.DrawRectangle(x + 1, y + 1, self.squareWidth() - 2,
self.squareHeight() - 2)
class Tetrominoes(object):
NoShape = 0
ZShape = 1
SShape = 2
LineShape = 3
TShape = 4
SquareShape = 5
LShape = 6
MirroredLShape = 7
class Shape(object):
coordsTable = (
((0, 0), (0, 0), (0, 0), (0, 0)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (-1, 0), (-1, 1)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1)),
((0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2)),
((-1, 0), (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 1)),
((0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1)),
((-1, -1), (0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1)),
((1, -1), (0, -1), (0, 0), (0, 1))
)
def __init__(self):
self.coords = [[0,0] for i in range(4)]
self.pieceShape = Tetrominoes.NoShape
self.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
def shape(self):
return self.pieceShape
def setShape(self, shape):
table = Shape.coordsTable[shape]
for i in range(4):
for j in range(2):
self.coords[i][j] = table[i][j]
self.pieceShape = shape
def setRandomShape(self):
self.setShape(random.randint(1, 7))
def x(self, index):
return self.coords[index][0]
def y(self, index):
return self.coords[index][1]
def setX(self, index, x):
self.coords[index][0] = x
def setY(self, index, y):
self.coords[index][1] = y
def minX(self):
m = self.coords[0][0]
for i in range(4):
m = min(m, self.coords[i][0])
return m
def maxX(self):
m = self.coords[0][0]
for i in range(4):
m = max(m, self.coords[i][0])
return m
def minY(self):
m = self.coords[0][1]
for i in range(4):
m = min(m, self.coords[i][1])
return m
def maxY(self):
m = self.coords[0][1]
for i in range(4):
m = max(m, self.coords[i][1])
return m
def rotatedLeft(self):
if self.pieceShape == Tetrominoes.SquareShape:
return self
result = Shape()
result.pieceShape = self.pieceShape
for i in range(4):
result.setX(i, self.y(i))
result.setY(i, -self.x(i))
return result
def rotatedRight(self):
if self.pieceShape == Tetrominoes.SquareShape:
return self
result = Shape()
result.pieceShape = self.pieceShape
for i in range(4):
result.setX(i, -self.y(i))
result.setY(i, self.x(i))
return result
def main():
app = wx.App()
ex = Tetris(None)
ex.Show()
app.MainLoop()
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()``````

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/image-20201115192956845.png" alt="image-20201115192956845" style="zoom:50%;" />

``````...
self.curX = 0
self.curY = 0
self.numLinesRemoved = 0
self.board = []
...``````

``````for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
shape = self.shapeAt(j, Board.BoardHeight - i - 1)
if shape != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
self.drawSquare(dc,
0 + j * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + i * self.squareHeight(), shape)``````

``````if self.curPiece.shape() != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
for i in range(4):
x = self.curX + self.curPiece.x(i)
y = self.curY - self.curPiece.y(i)
self.drawSquare(dc, 0 + x * self.squareWidth(),
boardTop + (Board.BoardHeight - y - 1) * self.squareHeight(),
self.curPiece.shape())``````

``````elif keycode == wx.WXK_LEFT:
self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX - 1, self.curY)``````

``````def tryMove(self, newPiece, newX, newY):
for i in range(4):
x = newX + newPiece.x(i)
y = newY - newPiece.y(i)
if x < 0 or x >= Board.BoardWidth or y < 0 or y >= Board.BoardHeight:
return False
if self.shapeAt(x, y) != Tetrominoes.NoShape:
return False
self.curPiece = newPiece
self.curX = newX
self.curY = newY
self.Refresh()
return True``````

`tryMove()`方法中，我们尝试移动我们的形状。如果形状在棋盘的边缘或与其他棋子相邻，我们返回 "False"；否则我们将当前下落的棋子放置到新的位置并返回 "True"。

``````def OnTimer(self, event):
if event.GetId() == Board.ID_TIMER:
if self.isWaitingAfterLine:
self.isWaitingAfterLine = False
self.newPiece()
else:
self.oneLineDown()
else:
event.Skip()``````

`OnTimer()`方法中，我们要么在前一个棋子落到底部后，创建一个新的棋子，要么将落下的棋子向下移动一行。

``````def removeFullLines(self):
numFullLines = 0
rowsToRemove = []
for i in range(Board.BoardHeight):
n = 0
for j in range(Board.BoardWidth):
if not self.shapeAt(j, i) == Tetrominoes.NoShape:
n = n + 1
if n == 10:
rowsToRemove.append(i)
rowsToRemove.reverse()
for m in rowsToRemove:
for k in range(m, Board.BoardHeight):
for l in range(Board.BoardWidth):
self.setShapeAt(l, k, self.shapeAt(l, k + 1))
...``````

``````def newPiece(self):
self.curPiece = self.nextPiece
statusbar = self.GetParent().statusbar
self.nextPiece.setRandomShape()
self.curX = Board.BoardWidth / 2 + 1
self.curY = Board.BoardHeight - 1 + self.curPiece.minY()
if not self.tryMove(self.curPiece, self.curX, self.curY):
self.curPiece.setShape(Tetrominoes.NoShape)
self.timer.Stop()
self.isStarted = False
statusbar.SetStatusText('Game over')``````

`newPiece()`方法随机创建一个新的俄罗斯方块。如果这个棋子不能进入它的初始位置，游戏就结束了。

`Shape`类保存了俄罗斯方块的信息。

``self.coords = [[0,0] for i in range(4)]``

<img src="https://mymarkdowm.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/markdownimg/coordinates.png" alt="Coordinates" style="zoom:50%;" />

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000038176070