《Python Cookbook 3rd》笔记(3.15):字符串转换为日期

巨輪 2020-11-19 04:08:19
Python def


字符串转换为日期

问题

你的应用程序接受字符串格式的输入,但是你想将它们转换为 datetime 对象以便在上面执行非字符串操作。

解法

使用 Python 的标准模块 datetime 可以很容易的解决这个问题。比如:

>>> from datetime import datetime
>>> text = '2012-09-20'
>>> y = datetime.strptime(text, '%Y-%m-%d')
>>> z = datetime.now()
>>> diff = z - y
>>> diff
datetime.timedelta(3, 77824, 177393)
>>>

讨论

datetime.strptime() 方法支持很多的格式化代码,比如 %Y 代表 4 位数年份, %m 代表两位数月份。还有一点值得注意的是这些格式化占位符也可以反过来使用,将日期输出为指定的格式字符串形式。

比如,假设你的代码中生成了一个 datetime 对象,你想将它格式化为漂亮易读形式后放在自动生成的信件或者报告的顶部:

>>> z
datetime.datetime(2012, 9, 23, 21, 37, 4, 177393)
>>> nice_z = datetime.strftime(z, '%A %B %d, %Y')
>>> nice_z
'Sunday September 23, 2012'
>>>

还有一点需要注意的是, strptime() 的性能要比你想象中的差很多,因为它是使用纯 Python 实现,并且必须处理所有的系统本地设置。如果你要在代码中需要解析大量的日期并且已经知道了日期字符串的确切格式,可以自己实现一套解析方案来获取更好的性能。比如,如果你已经知道所以日期格式是 YYYY-MM-DD ,你可以像下面这样实现一个解析函数:

from datetime import datetime
def parse_ymd(s):
year_s, mon_s, day_s = s.split('-')
return datetime(int(year_s), int(mon_s), int(day_s))

实际测试中,这个函数比 datetime.strptime() 快 7 倍多。如果你要处理大量的涉及到日期的数据的话,那么最好考虑下这个方案!

版权声明
本文为[巨輪]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://my.oschina.net/jallenkwong/blog/4724063

  1. 利用Python爬虫获取招聘网站职位信息
  2. Using Python crawler to obtain job information of recruitment website
  3. Several highly rated Python libraries arrow, jsonpath, psutil and tenacity are recommended
  4. Python装饰器
  5. Python实现LDAP认证
  6. Python decorator
  7. Implementing LDAP authentication with Python
  8. Vscode configures Python development environment!
  9. In Python, how dare you say you can't log module? ️
  10. 我收藏的有关Python的电子书和资料
  11. python 中 lambda的一些tips
  12. python中字典的一些tips
  13. python 用生成器生成斐波那契数列
  14. python脚本转pyc踩了个坑。。。
  15. My collection of e-books and materials about Python
  16. Some tips of lambda in Python
  17. Some tips of dictionary in Python
  18. Using Python generator to generate Fibonacci sequence
  19. The conversion of Python script to PyC stepped on a pit...
  20. Python游戏开发,pygame模块,Python实现扫雷小游戏
  21. Python game development, pyGame module, python implementation of minesweeping games
  22. Python实用工具,email模块,Python实现邮件远程控制自己电脑
  23. Python utility, email module, python realizes mail remote control of its own computer
  24. 毫无头绪的自学Python,你可能连门槛都摸不到!【最佳学习路线】
  25. Python读取二进制文件代码方法解析
  26. Python字典的实现原理
  27. Without a clue, you may not even touch the threshold【 Best learning route]
  28. Parsing method of Python reading binary file code
  29. Implementation principle of Python dictionary
  30. You must know the function of pandas to parse JSON data - JSON_ normalize()
  31. Python实用案例,私人定制,Python自动化生成爱豆专属2021日历
  32. Python practical case, private customization, python automatic generation of Adu exclusive 2021 calendar
  33. 《Python实例》震惊了,用Python这么简单实现了聊天系统的脏话,广告检测
  34. "Python instance" was shocked and realized the dirty words and advertisement detection of the chat system in Python
  35. Convolutional neural network processing sequence for Python deep learning
  36. Python data structure and algorithm (1) -- enum type enum
  37. 超全大厂算法岗百问百答(推荐系统/机器学习/深度学习/C++/Spark/python)
  38. 【Python进阶】你真的明白NumPy中的ndarray吗?
  39. All questions and answers for algorithm posts of super large factories (recommended system / machine learning / deep learning / C + + / spark / Python)
  40. [advanced Python] do you really understand ndarray in numpy?
  41. 【Python进阶】Python进阶专栏栏主自述:不忘初心,砥砺前行
  42. [advanced Python] Python advanced column main readme: never forget the original intention and forge ahead
  43. python垃圾回收和缓存管理
  44. java调用Python程序
  45. java调用Python程序
  46. Python常用函数有哪些?Python基础入门课程
  47. Python garbage collection and cache management
  48. Java calling Python program
  49. Java calling Python program
  50. What functions are commonly used in Python? Introduction to Python Basics
  51. Python basic knowledge
  52. Anaconda5.2 安装 Python 库(MySQLdb)的方法
  53. Python实现对脑电数据情绪分析
  54. Anaconda 5.2 method of installing Python Library (mysqldb)
  55. Python implements emotion analysis of EEG data
  56. Master some advanced usage of Python in 30 seconds, which makes others envy it
  57. python爬取百度图片并对图片做一系列处理
  58. Python crawls Baidu pictures and does a series of processing on them
  59. python链接mysql数据库
  60. Python link MySQL database