Side effects of Python mutable types as default parameters of functions

Ten years in the world 2021-02-23 00:42:00
effects python mutable types default


stay Python When you define a function in , You can specify Default parameters , So you don't have to pass in parameters every time you call the function , And it can simplify our code .

When you define a function , If used Variable type As a function of Default parameters , There are often side effects . Look at the following code .

def foo(li=[]):
li.append(1)
print(li)
foo()
foo()
foo()

You may want to get the following result :

[1]
[1]
[1]

But actually , The result is :

[1]
[1, 1]
[1, 1, 1]

According to the results , It seems that every function call ,li The list records the result of the last call , Instead of using default parameters []. But every time we call a function , All pass an empty list [] go in , There will be no side effects , To be able to get the results we want right .

def foo(li=[]):
li.append(1)
print(li)
foo([])
foo([])
foo([])
[1]
[1]
[1]

Why did this happen ? In fact, the reason for this problem is Python It is determined by the properties of functions in . Because the function is also object , and object You can have your own properties , So functions have their own properties .

When foo When a function is created , its Default parameters Has been preserved in its __defaults__ Attribute in . Functions are created only once , Every time after that foo() When , Will only call functions , It's not going to recreate a function . So the function of Default parameters It will only be calculated once , No matter how many times it is called later , Default parameters It's always the same object .

We use it id() Function to print out the memory address of the default parameter .

def foo(li=[]):
li.append(1)
print(li, id(li))
foo()
foo()
foo()
[1] 48904632
[1, 1] 48904632
[1, 1, 1] 48904632

It can be seen that , After calling the function three times , It's printed inside li The address is the same , So they're actually the same object .

Knowing the cause of the problem , So what if we solve it ? We can use None As a function of Default parameters , Calling foo Function time , Inside the function body, you can judge li Is it None To decide if you need to use The default value is . such , When calling foo() Function and no arguments are passed , Give again li Assign a The default value is that will do .

def foo(li=None):
if li is None:
li = []
li.append(1)
print(li)
foo()
foo()
foo()
[1]
[1]
[1]

So you don't have to worry Variable type As function Default parameters Side effects of drug use , It doesn't have to be called every time foo Functions pass in a parameter , Can solve this problem very well .

therefore , When we define a function Default parameters when , Should be used as much as possible Immutable type In order to avoid unexpected side effects . Of course , Unless you know exactly what you need to use Variable type To achieve certain goals .

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