Fundamentals of python (XIV): errors and exceptions

Python sophomore 2021-07-25 01:58:27
fundamentals python xiv errors exceptions


Errors in programs are often referred to as bug , At work, we not only need to change the... In our own program bug , You also need to change... In other people's programs bug , New projects include bug To change , Old projects also have bug To change , so to speak bug Almost throughout a programmer's career ... We usually will bug It is divided into Error( error ) and Exception( abnormal ), Let's learn more about Python Medium error and abnormal .

error

error It usually refers to... In the program Grammar mistakes or Logic error , To pass through two Python Take a look at :

Examples of syntax errors

  •  
#print There's less in the front : if True print("hello python")

We usually write programs using development tools , such as : I use Pycharm Tool compilation Python Program , Grammatical errors like this , When writing a program , The compiler will detect it and prompt us , therefore , The program we write will hardly have this problem .

Examples of logical errors

  •  
#0 Can't be a divisor a = 5b = 0print(a/b)
# Execution results :ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

The logic error compiler will not prompt us , therefore , When we write the program , Have a certain understanding of some basic common sense , thus , Avoid logical errors .

abnormal

Even if Python The syntax of the program is correct , When it's running , There is also the possibility of mistakes , Errors detected during runtime are called exceptions ; Most exceptions are not handled by the program , All in the form of error messages .

Python Built-in exception

Let's first look at the exception hierarchy :

 
 
  •  
BaseException +-- SystemExit +-- KeyboardInterrupt +-- GeneratorExit +-- Exception +-- StopIteration +-- StopAsyncIteration +-- ArithmeticError | +-- FloatingPointError | +-- OverflowError | +-- ZeroDivisionError +-- AssertionError +-- AttributeError +-- BufferError +-- EOFError +-- ImportError | +-- ModuleNotFoundError +-- LookupError | +-- IndexError | +-- KeyError +-- MemoryError +-- NameError | +-- UnboundLocalError +-- OSError | +-- BlockingIOError | +-- ChildProcessError | +-- ConnectionError | | +-- BrokenPipeError | | +-- ConnectionAbortedError | | +-- ConnectionRefusedError | | +-- ConnectionResetError | +-- FileExistsError | +-- FileNotFoundError | +-- InterruptedError | +-- IsADirectoryError | +-- NotADirectoryError | +-- PermissionError | +-- ProcessLookupError | +-- TimeoutError +-- ReferenceError +-- RuntimeError | +-- NotImplementedError | +-- RecursionError +-- SyntaxError | +-- IndentationError | +-- TabError +-- SystemError +-- TypeError +-- ValueError | +-- UnicodeError | +-- UnicodeDecodeError | +-- UnicodeEncodeError | +-- UnicodeTranslateError +-- Warning +-- DeprecationWarning +-- PendingDeprecationWarning +-- RuntimeWarning +-- SyntaxWarning +-- UserWarning +-- FutureWarning +-- ImportWarning +-- UnicodeWarning +-- BytesWarning +-- ResourceWarning

Through the above exception hierarchy , We can see clearly ,BaseException For all exception base classes , It is divided into :SystemExit、KeyboardInterrupt、GeneratorExit、Exception Four types of anomalies ,Exception The base class for all non system exit class exceptions ,Python Advocate inheritance Exception Or its subclass to derive a new exception ;Exception The following contains a variety of common exceptions, such as :MemoryError( out of memory )、BlockingIOError(IO abnormal )、SyntaxError( Syntax error exception )... For detailed instructions, you can see the following list :

Exception name describe
BaseException The base class for all exceptions
SystemExit The interpreter requests exit
KeyboardInterrupt User interrupt execution ( Usually the input ^C)
Exception Regular error base class
StopIteration Iterators have no more values
GeneratorExit generator (generator) An exception occurs to notify the exit
StandardError All built-in standard exception base classes
ArithmeticError Base class for all numerical errors
FloatingPointError Floating point error
OverflowError The numerical operation exceeds the maximum limit
ZeroDivisionError except ( Or modulus ) zero ( All data types )
AssertionError Assertion statement failed
AttributeError Object does not have this property
EOFError No built-in input , arrive EOF Mark
EnvironmentError Base class for operating system errors
IOError Input / Output operation failed
OSError Operating system error
WindowsError System call failed
ImportError The import module / Object failed
LookupError Base class for invalid data query
IndexError There is no index in the sequence (index)
KeyError There is no key in the map
MemoryError Memory overflow error ( about Python The interpreter is not fatal )
NameError Not a statement / Initialize object ( There is no attribute )
UnboundLocalError Accessing an uninitialized local variable
ReferenceError Weak reference (Weak reference) Trying to access a garbage collected object
RuntimeError General runtime errors
NotImplementedError A method that has not yet been implemented
SyntaxError Python Grammar mistakes
IndentationError The indentation error
TabError Tab Mixed with Spaces
SystemError General interpreter system error
TypeError Invalid operation on type
ValueError Invalid parameter passed in
UnicodeError Unicode Related errors
UnicodeDecodeError Unicode Error in decoding
UnicodeEncodeError Unicode Error in coding
UnicodeTranslateError Unicode Error in conversion
Warning The base class for warnings
DeprecationWarning A warning about abandoned features
FutureWarning A warning about future semantic changes in construction
OverflowWarning Old about auto promotion to long form (long) Warning of
PendingDeprecationWarning A warning that features will be discarded
RuntimeWarning Suspicious runtime behavior (runtime behavior) Warning of
SyntaxWarning A dubious grammatical warning
UserWarning Warnings generated by user code


exception handling

Python The program catches exceptions using try/except sentence , Let's take an example :

  •  
#1、 The divisor is 0, Uncaught exception def getNum(n): return 10 / nprint(getNum(0))# Output results :ZeroDivisionError: division by zero
#2、 Capture exception def getNum(n): try: return 10 / n except IOError: print('Error: IOError argument.') except ZeroDivisionError: print('Error: ZeroDivisionError argument.')print(getNum(0))''' Output results :Error: ZeroDivisionError argument.None'''

try The statement works as :

  • First , perform try Clause ( stay try and except The part between keywords );

  • If no exceptions occur , except Clause stay try After the statement is executed, it is ignored ;

  • If in try Exception occurred during clause execution , Then the rest of the clause will be ignored ;

  • If the exception matches except The exception type specified after the keyword , Just execute the corresponding except Clause , And then go ahead and do it try Code after statement ;

  • If an exception happens , stay except There is no matching branch... In the clause , It will pass on to the next level try In the sentence ;

  • If the corresponding processing statement cannot be found in the end , It becomes a Unhandled exception , Terminate program operation , Display prompt message .

try/except The statement can also have a else、finally Clause , Examples are as follows :

  •  
def getNum(n): try: print('try --> ',10 / n) except ZeroDivisionError: print('except --> Error: ZeroDivisionError argument.') else: print('else -->') finally: print('finally -->')
'''1、 call :getNum(0) Output results :except --> Error: ZeroDivisionError argument.finally -->
2、 call :getNum(1) Output results :try --> 10.0else -->finally -->'''

among ,else Clause can only appear in all except After Clause , Execute only if there are no exceptions ;finally Clause at the end , Execute whether or not an exception occurs .

Throw an exception

Use raise Statement allows you to force a specified exception to be thrown , Exception to be thrown by raise The unique parameter ID of , It must be an exception instance or exception class ( Inherited from Exception Class ), Such as :

  •  
raise NameError('HiThere')

Custom exception

Normally ,Python The exception type provided is already suitable for our use , But sometimes we have customized needs , We can customize exception classes , Inherited from Error or Exception Class is OK , Look at an example :

  •  
# Custom exception classes MyExcclass MyExc(Exception): # Inherit Exception class def __init__(self, value): self.value = value def __str__(self): if self.value == 0: return ' The dividend cannot be zero 0'# Custom method def getNum(n): try: if n == 0: exc = MyExc(n) print(exc) else: print(10 / n) except: pass'''1、 call getNum(1), The output is :10.0
2、 call getNum(0), The output is : The dividend cannot be zero 0'''

In this custom exception example , When parameters n Not for 0 when , It's normal , When n be equal to 0, Throw an exception , Custom exceptions are rarely used in practical applications , Understanding can .

 

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