Python based OpenCV intelligent traffic light system (ratio of north-south traffic flow) [source code & deployment tutorial]

Horses visual 2022-09-09 00:29:54 阅读数:211

pythonbasedopencvintelligenttraffic

1.研究背景:

In the application process of traditional urban road traffic lights,There is a shortage of professional and technical personnel、Project investment is low、It is more difficult to repair the fault of the signal lamp,It brings great inconvenience to the life and travel of urban residents.对此,article for in-depth research,The basic structure of urban road smart traffic light system is analyzed,And fully combine the actual situation to design and application,It aims to alleviate the problem of urban traffic congestion,提升居民幸福感.

2.研究内容&目标:

用python基于opencvRealize the identification of vehicle flow,然后通过yolov7The algorithm calculates the ratio of the number of vehicles in the north-south and east-west lanes,According to the real-time traffic flow ratio of the north-south lane, the time ratio of traffic light switching is guided in real time,Thereby ensuring the smooth flow of urban traffic to the greatest extent,Reduce the time of morning and evening peak vehicle congestion,Realize the design goals of smart transportation.

3.解决的关键问题:

1.Understand the principles of traffic light switching;

2.Build vehicle detection、Models for tracking and statistics;

3.Build a real-world optimization model based on the assumptions.

4.图片展示

1.png

2.png

5.视频展示

Python基于OpenCVintelligent traffic light system(North-South traffic flow ratio)[源码&部署教程]

6.Deepsort目标追踪

(1)获取原始视频帧
(2)利用目标检测器对视频帧中的目标进行检测
(3)将检测到的目标的框中的特征提取出来,该特征包括表观特征(方便特征对比避免ID switch)和运动特征(运动特征方
便卡尔曼滤波对其进行预测)
(4)计算前后两帧目标之前的匹配程度(利用匈牙利算法和级联匹配),为每个追踪到的目标分配ID.
Deepsort的前身是sort算法,sort算法的核心是卡尔曼滤波算法和匈牙利算法.

 卡尔曼滤波算法作用:该算法的主要作用就是当前的一系列运动变量去预测下一时刻的运动变量,但是第一次的检测结果用来初始化卡尔曼滤波的运动变量.
匈牙利算法的作用:简单来讲就是解决分配问题,就是把一群检测框和卡尔曼预测的框做分配,让卡尔曼预测的框找到和自己最匹配的检测框,达到追踪的效果.

sort工作流程如下图所示:

4.png

Detections是通过目标检测到的框框.Tracks是轨迹信息.

整个算法的工作流程如下:

(1)将第一帧检测到的结果创建其对应的Tracks.将卡尔曼滤波的运动变量初始化,通过卡尔曼滤波预测其对应的框框.

(2)将该帧目标检测的框框和上一帧通过Tracks预测的框框一一进行IOU匹配,再通过IOU匹配的结果计算其代价矩阵(cost matrix,其计算方式是1-IOU).

(3)将(2)中得到的所有的代价矩阵作为匈牙利算法的输入,得到线性的匹配的结果,这时候我们得到的结果有三种,第一种是Tracks失配(Unmatched Tracks),我们直接将失配的Tracks删除;第二种是Detections失配(Unmatched Detections),我们将这样的Detections初始化为一个新的Tracks(new Tracks);第三种是检测框和预测的框框配对成功,这说明我们前一帧和后一帧追踪成功,将其对应的Detections通过卡尔曼滤波更新其对应的Tracks变量.

(4)反复循环(2)-(3)步骤,直到视频帧结束.

Deepsort算法流程

由于sort算法还是比较粗糙的追踪算法,当物体发生遮挡的时候,特别容易丢失自己的ID.而Deepsort算法在sort算法的基础上增加了级联匹配(Matching Cascade)和新轨迹的确认(confirmed).Tracks分为确认态(confirmed),和不确认态(unconfirmed),新产生的Tracks是不确认态的;不确认态的Tracks必须要和Detections连续匹配一定的次数(默认是3)才可以转化成确认态.确认态的Tracks必须和Detections连续失配一定次数(默认30次),才会被删除.
Deepsort算法的工作流程如下图所示:
5.png
整个算法的工作流程如下:

(1)将第一帧次检测到的结果创建其对应的Tracks.将卡尔曼滤波的运动变量初始化,通过卡尔曼滤波预测其对应的框框.这时候的Tracks一定是unconfirmed的.

(2)将该帧目标检测的框框和第上一帧通过Tracks预测的框框一一进行IOU匹配,再通过IOU匹配的结果计算其代价矩阵(cost matrix,其计算方式是1-IOU).

(3)将(2)中得到的所有的代价矩阵作为匈牙利算法的输入,得到线性的匹配的结果,这时候我们得到的结果有三种,第一种是Tracks失配(Unmatched Tracks),我们直接将失配的Tracks(因为这个Tracks是不确定态了,如果是确定态的话则要连续达到一定的次数(默认30次)才可以删除)删除;第二种是Detections失配(Unmatched Detections),我们将这样的Detections初始化为一个新的Tracks(new Tracks);第三种是检测框和预测的框框配对成功,这说明我们前一帧和后一帧追踪成功,将其对应的Detections通过卡尔曼滤波更新其对应的Tracks变量.

(4)反复循环(2)-(3)步骤,直到出现确认态(confirmed)的Tracks或者视频帧结束.

(5)通过卡尔曼滤波预测其确认态的Tracks和不确认态的Tracks对应的框框.将确认态的Tracks的框框和是Detections进行级联匹配(之前每次只要Tracks匹配上都会保存Detections其的外观特征和运动信息,默认保存前100帧,利用外观特征和运动信息和Detections进行级联匹配,这么做是因为确认态(confirmed)的Tracks和Detections匹配的可能性更大).

(6)进行级联匹配后有三种可能的结果.第一种,Tracks匹配,这样的Tracks通过卡尔曼滤波更新其对应的Tracks变量.第二第三种是Detections和Tracks失配,这时将之前的不确认状态的Tracks和失配的Tracks一起和Unmatched Detections一一进行IOU匹配,再通过IOU匹配的结果计算其代价矩阵(cost matrix,其计算方式是1-IOU).

(7)将(6)中得到的所有的代价矩阵作为匈牙利算法的输入,得到线性的匹配的结果,这时候我们得到的结果有三种,第一种是Tracks失配(Unmatched Tracks),我们直接将失配的Tracks(因为这个Tracks是不确定态了,如果是确定态的话则要连续达到一定的次数(默认30次)才可以删除)删除;第二种是Detections失配(Unmatched Detections),我们将这样的Detections初始化为一个新的Tracks(new Tracks);第三种是检测框和预测的框框配对成功,这说明我们前一帧和后一帧追踪成功,将其对应的Detections通过卡尔曼滤波更新其对应的Tracks变量.

(8)反复循环(5)-(7)步骤,直到视频帧结束.

7.准备YOLOv7格式数据集

如果不懂yolo格式数据集是什么样子的,建议先学习一下.大部分CVer都会推荐用labelImg进行数据的标注,我也不例外,推荐大家用labelImg进行数据标注.不过这里我不再详细介绍如何使用labelImg,网上有很多的教程.同时,标注数据需要用到图形交互界面,远程服务器就不太方便了,因此建议在本地电脑上标注好后再上传到服务器上.

这里假设我们已经得到标注好的yolo格式数据集,那么这个数据集将会按照如下的格式进行存放.
n.png
不过在这里面,train_list.txt和val_list.txt是后来我们要自己生成的,而不是labelImg生成的;其他的则是labelImg生成的.

接下来,就是生成 train_list.txt和val_list.txt.train_list.txt存放了所有训练图片的路径,val_list.txt则是存放了所有验证图片的路径,如下图所示,一行代表一个图片的路径.这两个文件的生成写个循环就可以了,不算难.

8.修改配置文件

总共有两个文件需要配置,一个是/yolov7/cfg/training/yolov7.yaml,这个文件是有关模型的配置文件;一个是/yolov7/data/coco.yaml,这个是数据集的配置文件.

第一步,复制yolov7.yaml文件到相同的路径下,然后重命名,我们重命名为yolov7-Helmet.yaml.

第二步,打开yolov7-Helmet.yaml文件,进行如下图所示的修改,这里修改的地方只有一处,就是把nc修改为我们数据集的目标总数即可.然后保存.

b.png

第三步,复制coco.yaml文件到相同的路径下,然后重命名,我们命名为Helmet.yaml.

第四步,打开Helmet.yaml文件,进行如下所示的修改,需要修改的地方为5处.

第一处:把代码自动下载COCO数据集的命令注释掉,以防代码自动下载数据集占用内存;第二处:修改train的位置为train_list.txt的路径;第三处:修改val的位置为val_list.txt的路径;第四处:修改nc为数据集目标总数;第五处:修改names为数据集所有目标的名称.然后保存.

k.png

9.训练代码

import argparse
import logging
import math
import os
import random
import time
from copy import deepcopy
from pathlib import Path
from threading import Thread
import numpy as np
import torch.distributed as dist
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.optim as optim
import torch.optim.lr_scheduler as lr_scheduler
import torch.utils.data
import yaml
from torch.cuda import amp
from torch.nn.parallel import DistributedDataParallel as DDP
from torch.utils.tensorboard import SummaryWriter
from tqdm import tqdm
import test # import test.py to get mAP after each epoch
from models.experimental import attempt_load
from models.yolo import Model
from utils.autoanchor import check_anchors
from utils.datasets import create_dataloader
from utils.general import labels_to_class_weights, increment_path, labels_to_image_weights, init_seeds, \
fitness, strip_optimizer, get_latest_run, check_dataset, check_file, check_git_status, check_img_size, \
check_requirements, print_mutation, set_logging, one_cycle, colorstr
from utils.google_utils import attempt_download
from utils.loss import ComputeLoss, ComputeLossOTA
from utils.plots import plot_images, plot_labels, plot_results, plot_evolution
from utils.torch_utils import ModelEMA, select_device, intersect_dicts, torch_distributed_zero_first, is_parallel
from utils.wandb_logging.wandb_utils import WandbLogger, check_wandb_resume
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
def train(hyp, opt, device, tb_writer=None):
logger.info(colorstr('hyperparameters: ') + ', '.join(f'{k}={v}' for k, v in hyp.items()))
save_dir, epochs, batch_size, total_batch_size, weights, rank, freeze = \
Path(opt.save_dir), opt.epochs, opt.batch_size, opt.total_batch_size, opt.weights, opt.global_rank, opt.freeze
# Directories
wdir = save_dir / 'weights'
wdir.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True) # make dir
last = wdir / 'last.pt'
best = wdir / 'best.pt'
results_file = save_dir / 'results.txt'
# Save run settings
with open(save_dir / 'hyp.yaml', 'w') as f:
yaml.dump(hyp, f, sort_keys=False)
with open(save_dir / 'opt.yaml', 'w') as f:
yaml.dump(vars(opt), f, sort_keys=False)
# Configure
plots = not opt.evolve # create plots
cuda = device.type != 'cpu'
init_seeds(2 + rank)
with open(opt.data) as f:
data_dict = yaml.load(f, Loader=yaml.SafeLoader) # data dict
is_coco = opt.data.endswith('coco.yaml')
# Logging- Doing this before checking the dataset. Might update data_dict
loggers = {'wandb': None} # loggers dict
if rank in [-1, 0]:
opt.hyp = hyp # add hyperparameters
run_id = torch.load(weights, map_location=device).get('wandb_id') if weights.endswith('.pt') and os.path.isfile(weights) else None
wandb_logger = WandbLogger(opt, Path(opt.save_dir).stem, run_id, data_dict)
loggers['wandb'] = wandb_logger.wandb
data_dict = wandb_logger.data_dict
if wandb_logger.wandb:
weights, epochs, hyp = opt.weights, opt.epochs, opt.hyp # WandbLogger might update weights, epochs if resuming
nc = 1 if opt.single_cls else int(data_dict['nc']) # number of classes
names = ['item'] if opt.single_cls and len(data_dict['names']) != 1 else data_dict['names'] # class names
assert len(names) == nc, '%g names found for nc=%g dataset in %s' % (len(names), nc, opt.data) # check
# Model
pretrained = weights.endswith('.pt')
if pretrained:
with torch_distributed_zero_first(rank):
attempt_download(weights) # download if not found locally
ckpt = torch.load(weights, map_location=device) # load checkpoint
model = Model(opt.cfg or ckpt['model'].yaml, ch=3, nc=nc, anchors=hyp.get('anchors')).to(device) # create
exclude = ['anchor'] if (opt.cfg or hyp.get('anchors')) and not opt.resume else [] # exclude keys
state_dict = ckpt['model'].float().state_dict() # to FP32
state_dict = intersect_dicts(state_dict, model.state_dict(), exclude=exclude) # intersect
model.load_state_dict(state_dict, strict=False) # load
logger.info('Transferred %g/%g items from %s' % (len(state_dict), len(model.state_dict()), weights)) # report
else:
model = Model(opt.cfg, ch=3, nc=nc, anchors=hyp.get('anchors')).to(device) # create
with torch_distributed_zero_first(rank):
check_dataset(data_dict) # check
train_path = data_dict['train']
test_path = data_dict['val']
# Freeze
freeze = [f'model.{x}.' for x in (freeze if len(freeze) > 1 else range(freeze[0]))] # parameter names to freeze (full or partial)
for k, v in model.named_parameters():
v.requires_grad = True # train all layers
if any(x in k for x in freeze):
print('freezing %s' % k)
v.requires_grad = False
# Optimizer
nbs = 64 # nominal batch size
accumulate = max(round(nbs / total_batch_size), 1) # accumulate loss before optimizing
hyp['weight_decay'] *= total_batch_size * accumulate / nbs # scale weight_decay
logger.info(f"Scaled weight_decay = {hyp['weight_decay']}")
pg0, pg1, pg2 = [], [], [] # optimizer parameter groups
for k, v in model.named_modules():
if hasattr(v, 'bias') and isinstance(v.bias, nn.Parameter):
pg2.append(v.bias) # biases
if isinstance(v, nn.BatchNorm2d):
pg0.append(v.weight) # no decay
elif hasattr(v, 'weight') and isinstance(v.weight, nn.Parameter):
pg1.append(v.weight) # apply decay
if hasattr(v, 'im'):
if hasattr(v.im, 'implicit'):
pg0.append(v.im.implicit)
else:
for iv in v.im:
pg0.append(iv.implicit)
if hasattr(v, 'imc'):
if hasattr(v.imc, 'implicit'):
pg0.append(v.imc.implicit)
else:
for iv in v.imc:
pg0.append(iv.implicit)
if hasattr(v, 'imb'):
if hasattr(v.imb, 'implicit'):
pg0.append(v.imb.implicit)
else:
for iv in v.imb:
pg0.append(iv.implicit)
if hasattr(v, 'imo'):
if hasattr(v.imo, 'implicit'):
pg0.append(v.imo.implicit)
else:
for iv in v.imo:
pg0.append(iv.implicit)
if hasattr(v, 'ia'):
if hasattr(v.ia, 'implicit'):
pg0.append(v.ia.implicit)
else:
for iv in v.ia:
pg0.append(iv.implicit)
if hasattr(v, 'attn'):
if hasattr(v.attn, 'logit_scale'):
pg0.append(v.attn.logit_scale)
if hasattr(v.attn, 'q_bias'):
pg0.append(v.attn.q_bias)
if hasattr(v.attn, 'v_bias'):
pg0.append(v.attn.v_bias)
if hasattr(v.attn, 'relative_position_bias_table'):
pg0.append(v.attn.relative_position_bias_table)
if hasattr(v, 'rbr_dense'):
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_origin'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_origin)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_avg_conv'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_avg_conv)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_pfir_conv'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_pfir_conv)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_1x1_kxk_idconv1'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_1x1_kxk_idconv1)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_1x1_kxk_conv2'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_1x1_kxk_conv2)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_gconv_dw'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_gconv_dw)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'weight_rbr_gconv_pw'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.weight_rbr_gconv_pw)
if hasattr(v.rbr_dense, 'vector'):
pg0.append(v.rbr_dense.vector)
if opt.adam:
optimizer = optim.Adam(pg0, lr=hyp['lr0'], betas=(hyp['momentum'], 0.999)) # adjust beta1 to momentum
else:
optimizer = optim.SGD(pg0, lr=hyp['lr0'], momentum=hyp['momentum'], nesterov=True)
optimizer.add_param_group({'params': pg1, 'weight_decay': hyp['weight_decay']}) # add pg1 with weight_decay
optimizer.add_param_group({'params': pg2}) # add pg2 (biases)
logger.info('Optimizer groups: %g .bias, %g conv.weight, %g other' % (len(pg2), len(pg1), len(pg0)))
del pg0, pg1, pg2
# Scheduler https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.01187.pdf
# https://pytorch.org/docs/stable/_modules/torch/optim/lr_scheduler.html#OneCycleLR
if opt.linear_lr:
lf = lambda x: (1 - x / (epochs - 1)) * (1.0 - hyp['lrf']) + hyp['lrf'] # linear
else:
lf = one_cycle(1, hyp['lrf'], epochs) # cosine 1->hyp['lrf']
scheduler = lr_scheduler.LambdaLR(optimizer, lr_lambda=lf)
# plot_lr_scheduler(optimizer, scheduler, epochs)
# EMA
ema = ModelEMA(model) if rank in [-1, 0] else None
# Resume
start_epoch, best_fitness = 0, 0.0
if pretrained:
# Optimizer
if ckpt['optimizer'] is not None:
optimizer.load_state_dict(ckpt['optimizer'])
best_fitness = ckpt['best_fitness']
# EMA
if ema and ckpt.get('ema'):
ema.ema.load_state_dict(ckpt['ema'].float().state_dict())
ema.updates = ckpt['updates']
# Results
if ckpt.get('training_results') is not None:
results_file.write_text(ckpt['training_results']) # write results.txt
# Epochs
start_epoch = ckpt['epoch'] + 1
if opt.resume:
assert start_epoch > 0, '%s training to %g epochs is finished, nothing to resume.' % (weights, epochs)
if epochs < start_epoch:
logger.info('%s has been trained for %g epochs. Fine-tuning for %g additional epochs.' %
(weights, ckpt['epoch'], epochs))
epochs += ckpt['epoch'] # finetune additional epochs
del ckpt, state_dict
# Image sizes
gs = max(int(model.stride.max()), 32) # grid size (max stride)
nl = model.model[-1].nl # number of detection layers (used for scaling hyp['obj'])
imgsz, imgsz_test = [check_img_size(x, gs) for x in opt.img_size] # verify imgsz are gs-multiples
# DP mode
if cuda and rank == -1 and torch.cuda.device_count() > 1:
model = torch.nn.DataParallel(model)
# SyncBatchNorm
if opt.sync_bn and cuda and rank != -1:
model = torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm.convert_sync_batchnorm(model).to(device)
logger.info('Using SyncBatchNorm()')
# Trainloader
dataloader, dataset = create_dataloader(train_path, imgsz, batch_size, gs, opt,
hyp=hyp, augment=True, cache=opt.cache_images, rect=opt.rect, rank=rank,
world_size=opt.world_size, workers=opt.workers,
image_weights=opt.image_weights, quad=opt.quad, prefix=colorstr('train: '))
mlc = np.concatenate(dataset.labels, 0)[:, 0].max() # max label class
nb = len(dataloader) # number of batches
assert mlc < nc, 'Label class %g exceeds nc=%g in %s. Possible class labels are 0-%g' % (mlc, nc, opt.data, nc - 1)
# Process 0
if rank in [-1, 0]:
testloader = create_dataloader(test_path, imgsz_test, batch_size * 2, gs, opt, # testloader
hyp=hyp, cache=opt.cache_images and not opt.notest, rect=True, rank=-1,
world_size=opt.world_size, workers=opt.workers,
pad=0.5, prefix=colorstr('val: '))[0]
if not opt.resume:
labels = np.concatenate(dataset.labels, 0)
c = torch.tensor(labels[:, 0]) # classes
# cf = torch.bincount(c.long(), minlength=nc) + 1. # frequency
# model._initialize_biases(cf.to(device))
if plots:
#plot_labels(labels, names, save_dir, loggers)
if tb_writer:
tb_writer.add_histogram('classes', c, 0)
# Anchors
if not opt.noautoanchor:
check_anchors(dataset, model=model, thr=hyp['anchor_t'], imgsz=imgsz)
model.half().float() # pre-reduce anchor precision
# DDP mode
if cuda and rank != -1:
model = DDP(model, device_ids=[opt.local_rank], output_device=opt.local_rank,
# nn.MultiheadAttention incompatibility with DDP https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch/issues/26698
find_unused_parameters=any(isinstance(layer, nn.MultiheadAttention) for layer in model.modules()))
# Model parameters
hyp['box'] *= 3. / nl # scale to layers
hyp['cls'] *= nc / 80. * 3. / nl # scale to classes and layers
hyp['obj'] *= (imgsz / 640) ** 2 * 3. / nl # scale to image size and layers
hyp['label_smoothing'] = opt.label_smoothing
model.nc = nc # attach number of classes to model
model.hyp = hyp # attach hyperparameters to model
model.gr = 1.0 # iou loss ratio (obj_loss = 1.0 or iou)
model.class_weights = labels_to_class_weights(dataset.labels, nc).to(device) * nc # attach class weights
model.names = names
# Start training
t0 = time.time()
nw = max(round(hyp['warmup_epochs'] * nb), 1000) # number of warmup iterations, max(3 epochs, 1k iterations)
# nw = min(nw, (epochs - start_epoch) / 2 * nb) # limit warmup to < 1/2 of training
maps = np.zeros(nc) # mAP per class
results = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) # P, R, [email protected], [email protected], val_loss(box, obj, cls)
scheduler.last_epoch = start_epoch - 1 # do not move
scaler = amp.GradScaler(enabled=cuda)
compute_loss_ota = ComputeLossOTA(model) # init loss class
compute_loss = ComputeLoss(model) # init loss class
logger.info(f'Image sizes {imgsz} train, {imgsz_test} test\n'
f'Using {dataloader.num_workers} dataloader workers\n'
f'Logging results to {save_dir}\n'
f'Starting training for {epochs} epochs...')
torch.save(model, wdir / 'init.pt')
for epoch in range(start_epoch, epochs): # epoch ------------------------------------------------------------------
model.train()
# Update image weights (optional)
if opt.image_weights:
# Generate indices
if rank in [-1, 0]:
cw = model.class_weights.cpu().numpy() * (1 - maps) ** 2 / nc # class weights
iw = labels_to_image_weights(dataset.labels, nc=nc, class_weights=cw) # image weights
dataset.indices = random.choices(range(dataset.n), weights=iw, k=dataset.n) # rand weighted idx
# Broadcast if DDP
if rank != -1:
indices = (torch.tensor(dataset.indices) if rank == 0 else torch.zeros(dataset.n)).int()
dist.broadcast(indices, 0)
if rank != 0:
dataset.indices = indices.cpu().numpy()
# Update mosaic border
# b = int(random.uniform(0.25 * imgsz, 0.75 * imgsz + gs) // gs * gs)
# dataset.mosaic_border = [b - imgsz, -b] # height, width borders
mloss = torch.zeros(4, device=device) # mean losses
if rank != -1:
dataloader.sampler.set_epoch(epoch)
pbar = enumerate(dataloader)
logger.info(('\n' + '%10s' * 8) % ('Epoch', 'gpu_mem', 'box', 'obj', 'cls', 'total', 'labels', 'img_size'))
if rank in [-1, 0]:
pbar = tqdm(pbar, total=nb) # progress bar
optimizer.zero_grad()
for i, (imgs, targets, paths, _) in pbar: # batch -------------------------------------------------------------
ni = i + nb * epoch # number integrated batches (since train start)
imgs = imgs.to(device, non_blocking=True).float() / 255.0 # uint8 to float32, 0-255 to 0.0-1.0
# Warmup
if ni <= nw:
xi = [0, nw] # x interp
# model.gr = np.interp(ni, xi, [0.0, 1.0]) # iou loss ratio (obj_loss = 1.0 or iou)
accumulate = max(1, np.interp(ni, xi, [1, nbs / total_batch_size]).round())
for j, x in enumerate(optimizer.param_groups):
# bias lr falls from 0.1 to lr0, all other lrs rise from 0.0 to lr0
x['lr'] = np.interp(ni, xi, [hyp['warmup_bias_lr'] if j == 2 else 0.0, x['initial_lr'] * lf(epoch)])
if 'momentum' in x:
x['momentum'] = np.interp(ni, xi, [hyp['warmup_momentum'], hyp['momentum']])
# Multi-scale
if opt.multi_scale:
sz = random.randrange(imgsz * 0.5, imgsz * 1.5 + gs) // gs * gs # size
sf = sz / max(imgs.shape[2:]) # scale factor
if sf != 1:
ns = [math.ceil(x * sf / gs) * gs for x in imgs.shape[2:]] # new shape (stretched to gs-multiple)
imgs = F.interpolate(imgs, size=ns, mode='bilinear', align_corners=False)
# Forward
with amp.autocast(enabled=cuda):
pred = model(imgs) # forward
if 'loss_ota' not in hyp or hyp['loss_ota'] == 1:
loss, loss_items = compute_loss_ota(pred, targets.to(device), imgs) # loss scaled by batch_size
else:
loss, loss_items = compute_loss(pred, targets.to(device)) # loss scaled by batch_size
if rank != -1:
loss *= opt.world_size # gradient averaged between devices in DDP mode
if opt.quad:
loss *= 4.
# Backward
scaler.scale(loss).backward()
# Optimize
if ni % accumulate == 0:
scaler.step(optimizer) # optimizer.step
scaler.update()
optimizer.zero_grad()
if ema:
ema.update(model)
# Print
if rank in [-1, 0]:
mloss = (mloss * i + loss_items) / (i + 1) # update mean losses
mem = '%.3gG' % (torch.cuda.memory_reserved() / 1E9 if torch.cuda.is_available() else 0) # (GB)
s = ('%10s' * 2 + '%10.4g' * 6) % (
'%g/%g' % (epoch, epochs - 1), mem, *mloss, targets.shape[0], imgs.shape[-1])
pbar.set_description(s)
# Plot
if plots and ni < 10:
f = save_dir / f'train_batch{ni}.jpg' # filename
Thread(target=plot_images, args=(imgs, targets, paths, f), daemon=True).start()
# if tb_writer:
# tb_writer.add_image(f, result, dataformats='HWC', global_step=epoch)
# tb_writer.add_graph(torch.jit.trace(model, imgs, strict=False), []) # add model graph
elif plots and ni == 10 and wandb_logger.wandb:
wandb_logger.log({"Mosaics": [wandb_logger.wandb.Image(str(x), caption=x.name) for x in
save_dir.glob('train*.jpg') if x.exists()]})
# end batch ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# end epoch ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Scheduler
lr = [x['lr'] for x in optimizer.param_groups] # for tensorboard
scheduler.step()
# DDP process 0 or single-GPU
if rank in [-1, 0]:
# mAP
ema.update_attr(model, include=['yaml', 'nc', 'hyp', 'gr', 'names', 'stride', 'class_weights'])
final_epoch = epoch + 1 == epochs
if not opt.notest or final_epoch: # Calculate mAP
wandb_logger.current_epoch = epoch + 1
results, maps, times = test.test(data_dict,
batch_size=batch_size * 2,
imgsz=imgsz_test,
model=ema.ema,
single_cls=opt.single_cls,
dataloader=testloader,
save_dir=save_dir,
verbose=nc < 50 and final_epoch,
plots=plots and final_epoch,
wandb_logger=wandb_logger,
compute_loss=compute_loss,
is_coco=is_coco)
# Write
with open(results_file, 'a') as f:
f.write(s + '%10.4g' * 7 % results + '\n') # append metrics, val_loss
if len(opt.name) and opt.bucket:
os.system('gsutil cp %s gs://%s/results/results%s.txt' % (results_file, opt.bucket, opt.name))
# Log
tags = ['train/box_loss', 'train/obj_loss', 'train/cls_loss', # train loss
'metrics/precision', 'metrics/recall', 'metrics/mAP_0.5', 'metrics/mAP_0.5:0.95',
'val/box_loss', 'val/obj_loss', 'val/cls_loss', # val loss
'x/lr0', 'x/lr1', 'x/lr2'] # params
for x, tag in zip(list(mloss[:-1]) + list(results) + lr, tags):
if tb_writer:
tb_writer.add_scalar(tag, x, epoch) # tensorboard
if wandb_logger.wandb:
wandb_logger.log({tag: x}) # W&B
# Update best mAP
fi = fitness(np.array(results).reshape(1, -1)) # weighted combination of [P, R, [email protected], [email protected]]
if fi > best_fitness:
best_fitness = fi
wandb_logger.end_epoch(best_result=best_fitness == fi)
# Save model
if (not opt.nosave) or (final_epoch and not opt.evolve): # if save
ckpt = {'epoch': epoch,
'best_fitness': best_fitness,
'training_results': results_file.read_text(),
'model': deepcopy(model.module if is_parallel(model) else model).half(),
'ema': deepcopy(ema.ema).half(),
'updates': ema.updates,
'optimizer': optimizer.state_dict(),
'wandb_id': wandb_logger.wandb_run.id if wandb_logger.wandb else None}
# Save last, best and delete
torch.save(ckpt, last)
if best_fitness == fi:
torch.save(ckpt, best)
if (best_fitness == fi) and (epoch >= 200):
torch.save(ckpt, wdir / 'best_{:03d}.pt'.format(epoch))
if epoch == 0:
torch.save(ckpt, wdir / 'epoch_{:03d}.pt'.format(epoch))
elif ((epoch+1) % 25) == 0:
torch.save(ckpt, wdir / 'epoch_{:03d}.pt'.format(epoch))
elif epoch >= (epochs-5):
torch.save(ckpt, wdir / 'epoch_{:03d}.pt'.format(epoch))
if wandb_logger.wandb:
if ((epoch + 1) % opt.save_period == 0 and not final_epoch) and opt.save_period != -1:
wandb_logger.log_model(
last.parent, opt, epoch, fi, best_model=best_fitness == fi)
del ckpt
# end epoch ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# end training
if rank in [-1, 0]:
# Plots
if plots:
plot_results(save_dir=save_dir) # save as results.png
if wandb_logger.wandb:
files = ['results.png', 'confusion_matrix.png', *[f'{x}_curve.png' for x in ('F1', 'PR', 'P', 'R')]]
wandb_logger.log({"Results": [wandb_logger.wandb.Image(str(save_dir / f), caption=f) for f in files
if (save_dir / f).exists()]})
# Test best.pt
logger.info('%g epochs completed in %.3f hours.\n' % (epoch - start_epoch + 1, (time.time() - t0) / 3600))
if opt.data.endswith('coco.yaml') and nc == 80: # if COCO
for m in (last, best) if best.exists() else (last): # speed, mAP tests
results, _, _ = test.test(opt.data,
batch_size=batch_size * 2,
imgsz=imgsz_test,
conf_thres=0.001,
iou_thres=0.7,
model=attempt_load(m, device).half(),
single_cls=opt.single_cls,
dataloader=testloader,
save_dir=save_dir,
save_json=True,
plots=False,
is_coco=is_coco)
# Strip optimizers
final = best if best.exists() else last # final model
for f in last, best:
if f.exists():
strip_optimizer(f) # strip optimizers
if opt.bucket:
os.system(f'gsutil cp {final} gs://{opt.bucket}/weights') # upload
if wandb_logger.wandb and not opt.evolve: # Log the stripped model
wandb_logger.wandb.log_artifact(str(final), type='model',
name='run_' + wandb_logger.wandb_run.id + '_model',
aliases=['last', 'best', 'stripped'])
wandb_logger.finish_run()
else:
dist.destroy_process_group()
torch.cuda.empty_cache()
return results
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('--weights', type=str, default='yolov7.pt', help='initial weights path')
parser.add_argument('--cfg', type=str, default='cfg/training/yolov7.yaml', help='model.yaml path')
parser.add_argument('--data', type=str, default='data/coco.yaml', help='data.yaml path')
parser.add_argument('--hyp', type=str, default='data/hyp.scratch.p5.yaml', help='hyperparameters path')
parser.add_argument('--epochs', type=int, default=300)
parser.add_argument('--batch-size', type=int, default=4, help='total batch size for all GPUs')
parser.add_argument('--img-size', nargs='+', type=int, default=[640, 640], help='[train, test] image sizes')
parser.add_argument('--rect', action='store_true', help='rectangular training')
parser.add_argument('--resume', nargs='?', const=True, default=False, help='resume most recent training')
parser.add_argument('--nosave', action='store_true', help='only save final checkpoint')
parser.add_argument('--notest', action='store_true', help='only test final epoch')
parser.add_argument('--noautoanchor', action='store_true', help='disable autoanchor check')
parser.add_argument('--evolve', action='store_true', help='evolve hyperparameters')
parser.add_argument('--bucket', type=str, default='', help='gsutil bucket')
parser.add_argument('--cache-images', action='store_true', help='cache images for faster training')
parser.add_argument('--image-weights', action='store_true', help='use weighted image selection for training')
parser.add_argument('--device', default='0', help='cuda device, i.e. 0 or 0,1,2,3 or cpu')
parser.add_argument('--multi-scale', action='store_true', help='vary img-size +/- 50%%')
parser.add_argument('--single-cls', action='store_true', help='train multi-class data as single-class')
parser.add_argument('--adam', action='store_true', help='use torch.optim.Adam() optimizer')
parser.add_argument('--sync-bn', action='store_true', help='use SyncBatchNorm, only available in DDP mode')
parser.add_argument('--local_rank', type=int, default=-1, help='DDP parameter, do not modify')
parser.add_argument('--workers', type=int, default=0, help='maximum number of dataloader workers')
parser.add_argument('--project', default='runs/train', help='save to project/name')
parser.add_argument('--entity', default=None, help='W&B entity')
parser.add_argument('--name', default='exp', help='save to project/name')
parser.add_argument('--exist-ok', action='store_true', help='existing project/name ok, do not increment')
parser.add_argument('--quad', action='store_true', help='quad dataloader')
parser.add_argument('--linear-lr', action='store_true', help='linear LR')
parser.add_argument('--label-smoothing', type=float, default=0.0, help='Label smoothing epsilon')
parser.add_argument('--upload_dataset', action='store_true', help='Upload dataset as W&B artifact table')
parser.add_argument('--bbox_interval', type=int, default=-1, help='Set bounding-box image logging interval for W&B')
parser.add_argument('--save_period', type=int, default=-1, help='Log model after every "save_period" epoch')
parser.add_argument('--artifact_alias', type=str, default="latest", help='version of dataset artifact to be used')
parser.add_argument('--freeze', nargs='+', type=int, default=[0], help='Freeze layers: backbone of yolov7=50, first3=0 1 2')
opt = parser.parse_args()
# Set DDP variables
opt.world_size = int(os.environ['WORLD_SIZE']) if 'WORLD_SIZE' in os.environ else 1
opt.global_rank = int(os.environ['RANK']) if 'RANK' in os.environ else -1
set_logging(opt.global_rank)
#if opt.global_rank in [-1, 0]:
# check_git_status()
# check_requirements()
# Resume
wandb_run = check_wandb_resume(opt)
if opt.resume and not wandb_run: # resume an interrupted run
ckpt = opt.resume if isinstance(opt.resume, str) else get_latest_run() # specified or most recent path
assert os.path.isfile(ckpt), 'ERROR: --resume checkpoint does not exist'
apriori = opt.global_rank, opt.local_rank
with open(Path(ckpt).parent.parent / 'opt.yaml') as f:
opt = argparse.Namespace(**yaml.load(f, Loader=yaml.SafeLoader)) # replace
opt.cfg, opt.weights, opt.resume, opt.batch_size, opt.global_rank, opt.local_rank = '', ckpt, True, opt.total_batch_size, *apriori # reinstate
logger.info('Resuming training from %s' % ckpt)
else:
# opt.hyp = opt.hyp or ('hyp.finetune.yaml' if opt.weights else 'hyp.scratch.yaml')
opt.data, opt.cfg, opt.hyp = check_file(opt.data), check_file(opt.cfg), check_file(opt.hyp) # check files
assert len(opt.cfg) or len(opt.weights), 'either --cfg or --weights must be specified'
opt.img_size.extend([opt.img_size[-1]] * (2 - len(opt.img_size))) # extend to 2 sizes (train, test)
opt.name = 'evolve' if opt.evolve else opt.name
opt.save_dir = increment_path(Path(opt.project) / opt.name, exist_ok=opt.exist_ok | opt.evolve) # increment run
# DDP mode
opt.total_batch_size = opt.batch_size
device = select_device(opt.device, batch_size=opt.batch_size)
if opt.local_rank != -1:
assert torch.cuda.device_count() > opt.local_rank
torch.cuda.set_device(opt.local_rank)
device = torch.device('cuda', opt.local_rank)
dist.init_process_group(backend='nccl', init_method='env://') # distributed backend
assert opt.batch_size % opt.world_size == 0, '--batch-size must be multiple of CUDA device count'
opt.batch_size = opt.total_batch_size // opt.world_size
# Hyperparameters
with open(opt.hyp) as f:
hyp = yaml.load(f, Loader=yaml.SafeLoader) # load hyps
# Train
logger.info(opt)
if not opt.evolve:
tb_writer = None # init loggers
if opt.global_rank in [-1, 0]:
prefix = colorstr('tensorboard: ')
logger.info(f"{prefix}Start with 'tensorboard --logdir {opt.project}', view at http://localhost:6006/")
tb_writer = SummaryWriter(opt.save_dir) # Tensorboard
train(hyp, opt, device, tb_writer)
# Evolve hyperparameters (optional)
else:
# Hyperparameter evolution metadata (mutation scale 0-1, lower_limit, upper_limit)
meta = {'lr0': (1, 1e-5, 1e-1), # initial learning rate (SGD=1E-2, Adam=1E-3)
'lrf': (1, 0.01, 1.0), # final OneCycleLR learning rate (lr0 * lrf)
'momentum': (0.3, 0.6, 0.98), # SGD momentum/Adam beta1
'weight_decay': (1, 0.0, 0.001), # optimizer weight decay
'warmup_epochs': (1, 0.0, 5.0), # warmup epochs (fractions ok)
'warmup_momentum': (1, 0.0, 0.95), # warmup initial momentum
'warmup_bias_lr': (1, 0.0, 0.2), # warmup initial bias lr
'box': (1, 0.02, 0.2), # box loss gain
'cls': (1, 0.2, 4.0), # cls loss gain
'cls_pw': (1, 0.5, 2.0), # cls BCELoss positive_weight
'obj': (1, 0.2, 4.0), # obj loss gain (scale with pixels)
'obj_pw': (1, 0.5, 2.0), # obj BCELoss positive_weight
'iou_t': (0, 0.1, 0.7), # IoU training threshold
'anchor_t': (1, 2.0, 8.0), # anchor-multiple threshold
'anchors': (2, 2.0, 10.0), # anchors per output grid (0 to ignore)
'fl_gamma': (0, 0.0, 2.0), # focal loss gamma (efficientDet default gamma=1.5)
'hsv_h': (1, 0.0, 0.1), # image HSV-Hue augmentation (fraction)
'hsv_s': (1, 0.0, 0.9), # image HSV-Saturation augmentation (fraction)
'hsv_v': (1, 0.0, 0.9), # image HSV-Value augmentation (fraction)
'degrees': (1, 0.0, 45.0), # image rotation (+/- deg)
'translate': (1, 0.0, 0.9), # image translation (+/- fraction)
'scale': (1, 0.0, 0.9), # image scale (+/- gain)
'shear': (1, 0.0, 10.0), # image shear (+/- deg)
'perspective': (0, 0.0, 0.001), # image perspective (+/- fraction), range 0-0.001
'flipud': (1, 0.0, 1.0), # image flip up-down (probability)
'fliplr': (0, 0.0, 1.0), # image flip left-right (probability)
'mosaic': (1, 0.0, 1.0), # image mixup (probability)
'mixup': (1, 0.0, 1.0), # image mixup (probability)
'copy_paste': (1, 0.0, 1.0), # segment copy-paste (probability)
'paste_in': (1, 0.0, 1.0)} # segment copy-paste (probability)
with open(opt.hyp, errors='ignore') as f:
hyp = yaml.safe_load(f) # load hyps dict
if 'anchors' not in hyp: # anchors commented in hyp.yaml
hyp['anchors'] = 3
assert opt.local_rank == -1, 'DDP mode not implemented for --evolve'
opt.notest, opt.nosave = True, True # only test/save final epoch
# ei = [isinstance(x, (int, float)) for x in hyp.values()] # evolvable indices
yaml_file = Path(opt.save_dir) / 'hyp_evolved.yaml' # save best result here
if opt.bucket:
os.system('gsutil cp gs://%s/evolve.txt .' % opt.bucket) # download evolve.txt if exists
for _ in range(300): # generations to evolve
if Path('evolve.txt').exists(): # if evolve.txt exists: select best hyps and mutate
# Select parent(s)
parent = 'single' # parent selection method: 'single' or 'weighted'
x = np.loadtxt('evolve.txt', ndmin=2)
n = min(5, len(x)) # number of previous results to consider
x = x[np.argsort(-fitness(x))][:n] # top n mutations
w = fitness(x) - fitness(x).min() # weights
if parent == 'single' or len(x) == 1:
# x = x[random.randint(0, n - 1)] # random selection
x = x[random.choices(range(n), weights=w)[0]] # weighted selection
elif parent == 'weighted':
x = (x * w.reshape(n, 1)).sum(0) / w.sum() # weighted combination
# Mutate
mp, s = 0.8, 0.2 # mutation probability, sigma
npr = np.random
npr.seed(int(time.time()))
g = np.array([x[0] for x in meta.values()]) # gains 0-1
ng = len(meta)
v = np.ones(ng)
while all(v == 1): # mutate until a change occurs (prevent duplicates)
v = (g * (npr.random(ng) < mp) * npr.randn(ng) * npr.random() * s + 1).clip(0.3, 3.0)
for i, k in enumerate(hyp.keys()): # plt.hist(v.ravel(), 300)
hyp[k] = float(x[i + 7] * v[i]) # mutate
# Constrain to limits
for k, v in meta.items():
hyp[k] = max(hyp[k], v[1]) # lower limit
hyp[k] = min(hyp[k], v[2]) # upper limit
hyp[k] = round(hyp[k], 5) # significant digits
# Train mutation
results = train(hyp.copy(), opt, device)
# Write mutation results
print_mutation(hyp.copy(), results, yaml_file, opt.bucket)
# Plot results
plot_evolution(yaml_file)
print(f'Hyperparameter evolution complete. Best results saved as: {yaml_file}\n'
f'Command to train a new model with these hyperparameters: $ python train.py --hyp {yaml_file}')

10.UI界面的编写&系统的整合

class Thread_1(QThread): # 线程1
def __init__(self,info1):
super().__init__()
self.info1=info1
self.run2(self.info1)
def run2(self, info1):
result = []
result = det_yolov7(info1)
class Ui_MainWindow(object):
def setupUi(self, MainWindow):
MainWindow.setObjectName("MainWindow")
MainWindow.resize(1280, 960)
MainWindow.setStyleSheet("background-image: url(\"./template/carui.png\")")
self.centralwidget = QtWidgets.QWidget(MainWindow)
self.centralwidget.setObjectName("centralwidget")
self.label = QtWidgets.QLabel(self.centralwidget)
self.label.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(168, 60, 551, 71))
self.label.setAutoFillBackground(False)
self.label.setStyleSheet("")
self.label.setFrameShadow(QtWidgets.QFrame.Plain)
self.label.setAlignment(QtCore.Qt.AlignCenter)
self.label.setObjectName("label")
self.label.setStyleSheet("font-size:42px;font-weight:bold;font-family:SimHei;background:rgba(255,255,255,0);")
self.label_2 = QtWidgets.QLabel(self.centralwidget)
self.label_2.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(40, 188, 751, 501))
self.label_2.setStyleSheet("background:rgba(255,255,255,1);")
self.label_2.setAlignment(QtCore.Qt.AlignCenter)
self.label_2.setObjectName("label_2")
self.textBrowser = QtWidgets.QTextBrowser(self.centralwidget)
self.textBrowser.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(73, 746, 851, 174))
self.textBrowser.setStyleSheet("background:rgba(0,0,0,0);")
self.textBrowser.setObjectName("textBrowser")
self.pushButton = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
self.pushButton.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(1020, 750, 150, 40))
self.pushButton.setStyleSheet("background:rgba(53,142,255,1);border-radius:10px;padding:2px 4px;")
self.pushButton.setObjectName("pushButton")
self.pushButton_2 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
self.pushButton_2.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(1020, 810, 150, 40))
self.pushButton_2.setStyleSheet("background:rgba(53,142,255,1);border-radius:10px;padding:2px 4px;")
self.pushButton_2.setObjectName("pushButton_2")
self.pushButton_3 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
self.pushButton_3.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(1020, 870, 150, 40))
self.pushButton_3.setStyleSheet("background:rgba(53,142,255,1);border-radius:10px;padding:2px 4px;")
self.pushButton_3.setObjectName("pushButton_2")
MainWindow.setCentralWidget(self.centralwidget)
self.retranslateUi(MainWindow)
QtCore.QMetaObject.connectSlotsByName(MainWindow)
def retranslateUi(self, MainWindow):
_translate = QtCore.QCoreApplication.translate
MainWindow.setWindowTitle(_translate("MainWindow", "基于YOLO&Deepsort的交通车流量统计系统"))
self.label.setText(_translate("MainWindow", "基于YOLO&Deepsort的交通车流量统计系统"))
self.label_2.setText(_translate("MainWindow", "请添加对象,注意路径不要存在中文"))
self.pushButton.setText(_translate("MainWindow", "选择对象"))
self.pushButton_2.setText(_translate("MainWindow", "开始识别"))
self.pushButton_3.setText(_translate("MainWindow", "退出系统"))
# 点击文本框绑定槽事件
self.pushButton.clicked.connect(self.openfile)
self.pushButton_2.clicked.connect(self.click_1)
self.pushButton_3.clicked.connect(self.handleCalc3)
def openfile(self):
global sname, filepath
fname = QFileDialog()
fname.setAcceptMode(QFileDialog.AcceptOpen)
fname, _ = fname.getOpenFileName()
if fname == '':
return
filepath = os.path.normpath(fname)
sname = filepath.split(os.sep)
ui.printf("当前选择的文件路径是:%s" % filepath)
try:
show = cv2.imread(filepath)
ui.showimg(show)
except:
ui.printf('请检查路径是否存在中文,更名后重试!')
def handleCalc3(self):
os._exit(0)
def printf(self,text):
self.textBrowser.append(text)
self.cursor = self.textBrowser.textCursor()
self.textBrowser.moveCursor(self.cursor.End)
QtWidgets.QApplication.processEvents()
def showimg(self,img):
global vid
img2 = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
_image = QtGui.QImage(img2[:], img2.shape[1], img2.shape[0], img2.shape[1] * 3,
QtGui.QImage.Format_RGB888)
n_width = _image.width()
n_height = _image.height()
if n_width / 500 >= n_height / 400:
ratio = n_width / 700
else:
ratio = n_height / 700
new_width = int(n_width / ratio)
new_height = int(n_height / ratio)
new_img = _image.scaled(new_width, new_height, Qt.KeepAspectRatio)
self.label_2.setPixmap(QPixmap.fromImage(new_img))
def click_1(self):
global filepath
try:
self.thread_1.quit()
except:
pass
self.thread_1 = Thread_1(filepath) # 创建线程
self.thread_1.wait()
self.thread_1.start() # 开始线程
if __name__ == "__main__":
app = QtWidgets.QApplication(sys.argv)
MainWindow = QtWidgets.QMainWindow()
ui = Ui_MainWindow()
ui.setupUi(MainWindow)
MainWindow.show()
sys.exit(app.exec_())

11.项目展示

4.png

12.完整源码&环境部署视频教程&自定义UI界面&万字原创技术文档:

Python基于OpenCVintelligent traffic light system(North-South traffic flow ratio)[源码&部署教程] (mianbaoduo.com)

14.参考文献:


版权声明:本文为[Horses visual]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢。 https://pythonmana.com/2022/252/202209090007212343.html